Equine Seizures: Real Case Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Equine Seizures: Real Case Deck (15):
1

How common is infectious encephalitis in the UK?

not common
- EHV spinal cord
- West nile virus (flavivirus spread by mosquitos throughout US)

2

Which antipyschotic drug can lead to neuro signs similar to seizure?

Fluphenazine

3

Potential physiological causes of equine collapse?

Sleep deprivation
- horses need REM sleep lying down

4

What lesion may cause bilateral paresis of the thoracic limbs?

Brachial plexus (C6-T2)

5

What pathogens can be detected on serology?

- EHV1 (differentiate from vax - PCR on NP swabs or buffy coat of blood)
- lyme dz (associated with ticks and deer - SW, N, hard to dx as often sero +)
- louping ill (more common sheep and goats, occasionally seen SW)
- sarcocystis neurona
- toxoplasmosis
- neosporosis

6

How many cervical vertebrae do most mammals have?

7 (manitees and sloths have 6)

7

Most common cause of seizures in horses?

1* Idiopathic

8

Tx seizures in horses?

- phenobarb
- diazepam/midazolam SID/CRI
- alfalfa (high calcium) hay
- calcium carbonate
+- TMPS BID in case of bacterial meningitis? afe long term, oral, ok for pregnancy
- prednisolone?? (not sure why)

9

What may be added into tx if horse is pregnanct to v risk of abortion?

- progesterone analogue (regumate altrenogest)

10

Define focal seizures

- repeaable, focal eg. localised muscle fasciculations

11

Define generalised seziures

- generalised, progress from facial -> multi muscle groups +- conciousness and collapse

12

Define status epilepticus

- severe tonic clonic muscle spasm + collapse
- unconcious
- dont last long

13

What benign condition manifests as seizures?

Benign epilepsy of Arab foals
- cluster seziures starting @2-3 mo
- grow out by 1 yr
- metabolism and PE NAD
- = Lavender foal syndrome associated with hair coat colour change

14

Tx benign epilepsy of arab foals

Phenobarbitone

15

Causes of 2* seizures

> metabolic
- hepatic encephalopathy usually depressive rather than seizure inducing
> electrolyte imbalance
- v Ca
- v Mg
- v Cl
> neoplastic
- rare
> space occupying lesions
- strangles lesion in brain
- cholesteatoma choroid plexus ventricles (cholesterol granuloma) -> 2* hydrocephalus d/t v CSF outflow
> iatrogenic
> air embolism
> intra-carotid injection
> post-myelography
- avoid metrizamine contrast agent, use IOHEXOL instead and tilt head during injection
- premed with dexamethosone to v sterile inflam responsee to drug