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Flashcards in Ethics Deck (36)
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1

What is autonomy?

The freedom to direct one's own fate

2

What is beneficence?

action that is done for the benefit of other

3

What is coercion?

Methods of forcing someone's decision

4

What is confidentiality?

protecting private information by ensuring it is not made known to anyone outside the necessary circle of physicians/researchers

5

What is exploitation?

Taking advantage of someone's disadvantage

6

What is informed consent?

Voluntary, autonomous choice to participate

7

What is non-maleficence?

non-harming or inflicting the least harm possible to reach a beneficial outcome

8

What is privacy?

The freedom to make personal decisions free from the scrutiny of others

9

What is undue inducement?

A payment or reward that pressures the person into participating (especially if very poor)

10

What is a vulnerable population?

people groups with diminished capacity to protect their own interests including people with mental disabilities

11

What were the ethical concerns of the Milgram Experiments?

Deceit
Lack of debriefing
Undue inducement
Flawed methodology and withheld results
No risk/benefit analysis

12

What people are considered vulnerable and require special ethical considerations?

Pregnant women and fetuses
Children and young people
People in dependent or "unequal relationship"
Medically-dependent persons
People with cognitive impairment or mental illness
People who may have engaged in illegal activity
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Overseas participants

13

What were the key points of the Nuremberg Code?

- Voluntary consent is essential
- The research should be beneficial for society
- Experiments should be well designed
- Risk/benefit analysis should be performed
- Experiments should only be conducted by qualified researchers
- Research should stop if the participant withdraws consent or is harmed in any way

14

What did the Declaration of Helsinki state?

Patient welfare is the primary responsibility of researchers and medical professionals

15

What is Australia's national code of ethics called?

National Health and Medical Research Council's (NHMRC) National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research

16

What are the modern principles of human research ethics?

Respect for Persons
Non-maleficence
Beneficence
Justice
Scientific Integrity

17

What does Respect for Persons involve?

Informed, voluntary consent
Maximising autonomy (freedom) and human dignity
Maintaining confidentiality

18

What does Non-Maleficence involve?

First, do not harm
Risk/benefit analysis
Participant welfare trumps scientific discovery

19

What does Beneficence involve?

Maximising possible benefits
Must contribute something positive to society

20

What does Justice involve?

Fair selection of participants
Fair distribution of burdens and benefits

21

What does Scientific Integrity involve?

Publication of results for scrutiny
Valid and rigorous methodology

22

What is a duality of interest?

Where two or more interests co-exist in the same situation or relationship

23

What is a conflict of interest?

When a duality of interests leads to contradictory goals

24

What are the relevant Ethical Theories?

Consequentialism
Utilitarianism
Egalitarianism
Libertarianism
Deontology and Virtue Ethics
Casuistucal Reasoning

25

What is Consequentialism?

Focuses on the consequences
Ends justify the means

26

What is Utilitarianism?

Focuses on achieving the greatest good for the greatest number

27

What is Egalitarianism?

A political and social theory focused on equality
Concerned with fair distribution of goods

28

What is Libertarianism?

Focused on individual freedom and responsibility
Defines fairness as equal ability to enjoy what one has earned

29

What is Deontology and Virtue Ethics?

Focuses on rights, duties and other intrinsic moral features of actions rather than consequences

30

What is Casuistical Reasoning?

Examines relevant similarities and differences between cases