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Flashcards in Injury Deck (134)
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What is the 68-95-99.7% Rule?

a shorthand used to remember the percentage of values that lie within a band around the mean in a normal distribution with a width of two, four and six standard deviations


What is absolute risk increase (ARI)?

clinical epidemiology terms for the attributable risk, used when the risk in the exposed group is higher (ARI = Ie - I0) than the risk in the control group


What is absolute risk reduction (ARR)?

clinical epidemiology terms for the attributable risk, used when the risk in the exposed group is lower (ARR = Ie - I0) than the risk in the control group


What age-standardised rates?

incidence or mortality rate that has been standardised for age by the process of direct standardisation. In practice an age-standardised rate is weighted average of the age-specific rates where the weights are obtained from the age-distribution of a pre-determined standard population


What is the alternative hypothesis?

a hypothesis that states that there is an association between exposure to a particular factor and disease


What is analytical epidemiology?

a branch of epidemiology focused on testing hypotheses


What is attributable risk

a measure of the excess amount of disease occurring in one group over and above that in a comparison or reference group (Ie - I0). It can be calculated using incidence rates in which case it is also known as a rate difference, or incidence proportions in which case it is a risk difference


What is a bar chart?

a diagram in which the numerical values of variables are represented by the height or length of lines or rectangles of equal width.


What does bimodal mean?

having or involving two modes, in particular (of a statistical distribution) having two maxima.


What is a biomarker?

a measurable substance in an organism whose presence is indicative of some phenomenon such as disease, infection, or environmental exposure.


What is a box plot?

a standardized way of displaying the distribution of data based on the five number summary: minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum.


What is case fatality?

the proportion of deaths within a designated population of "cases" (people with a medical condition), over the course of the disease.


What is categorical data?

a non-numerical variable; has groups


What is a confounding variable?

a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.


What is a contingency table?

a table showing the distribution of one variable in rows and another in columns, used to study the correlation between the two variables.


What is a control error rate (CER)?

a term sometimes used in clinical trials to describe the risk or incidence proportion of the outcome of interest in the control or placebo group


What are covariates?

a variable that is possibly predictive of the outcome under study. A covariate may be of direct interest or it may be a confounding or interacting variable.


What is cross-level bias?

bias that is due to the aggregation ath the population level of causes or effects that are unlike those at the individual level. This form of bias is also referred to as the ecological fallacy when aggregate-level associations in ecological studies are interpreted as individual-level associations


What are crude rates?

overall incidence or martality rates calculated for a whole population (IR = number of events in one year ÷ total population or IR = number of events ÷ person-time at risk) with no adjustment for the potential confounding effects of other variables e.g. age


What is cumulative distributions?

a function that gives the probability that a random variable is less than or equal to the independent variable of the function.


What is cumulative frequency distribution?

the sum of the class and all classes below it in a frequency distribution. All that means is you're adding up a value and all of the values that came before it.


What is cumulative incidence?

Proportion of new cases during a specific time period


What are DALY's?

used for an estimate of the burden of diseases


What are degrees of freedom?

the number of independent values or quantities which can be assigned to a statistical distribution


What is a derived variable?

a variable that is created from another e.g. BMI categories from BMI continuous


What is descriptive epidemiology?

A branch of epidemiology that focuses on describing disease distribution by characteristics relating to time, place and person


What is direct standardisation?

the process where the rate of disease (or mortality) in a population is calculated on the assumption that the population had a standard age-sex distribution. If this is done for several different study populations then the resulting standardised incidence (mortality) rates can be directly compared because any differences in age/sex between the populations have been removed. Direct standardisation is most commonly performed for age and sex but can be performed for other characteristics such as race or socioeconomic status


What is disability?

a physical or mental condition that limits a person's movements, senses, or activities.


What is disability-free life expectancy?

the number of years of life an individual of a given age is expected to live free of disability, based on current morbidity and mortality rates


What is domino theory?

The belief that accidents are the result of a chain of events