What is morality?
What differentiates thoughts and actions into “good” and “bad.”
What is moral code?
A system for making distinctions between what is “good” and “bad.”
What is ethics?
Addressing questions about morals and how we decide if something is “good” or “bad.”
Give the universality principle of moral absolutism.
Don’t do to others what you wouldn’t do to yourself.
Explain the motivation aspect of the deontological perspective.
People are not a means to our ends.
Give the intrinsic value principle of the deontological perspective.
Treat people with respect, because they are not objects.
Explain the teleological idea behind practical ethics.
If there is good to be gained, sometimes a small, temporary violation can be permitted.
Give 4 questions you should ask to ensure you are treating participants with dignity.
Are they from vulnerable groups? Do they require recompense? Do they require follow up? Are their needs and rights being respected?
Give 4 questions you should ask to ensure your experiment is beneficial.
What is the benefit? Is there a genuine research question? Is the experiment valid? Will it shed light in the research question?
Give 3 questions you should ask to ensure your experiment does not cause harm.
Is there risk of harm to participants? How do you ensure procedures to minimise risk are carried out properly? Is the experiment “picking on” vulnerable people?
Summarise the human dignity/rights paramount area of ethical principles.
Interests of individual is most important, must not discriminate/stigmatise individuals, informed consent, withdrawal at any time, respect privacy and confidentiality.
Summarise the maximise benefit, minimise harm area of ethical principles.
Protect the vulnerable and stop the experiment if harm is being done.
Describe the replacement aspect of minimising animal suffering.
Computer modelling, in vitro methods, human volunteers, ‘lower’ animals, etc., should be used if possible.
Describe the reduction aspect of minimising animal suffering.
If you can obtain the same info from fewer animals, or more info from the same number of animals you should, via improved experimental design, data collection and data sharing.
Describe the refinement aspect of minimising animal suffering.
Minimise pain, suffering and distress, for example through environments enriching programmes, group housing and use of new anaesthetics, etc.
What are he objectives of RECs?
Maintain ethical standards, protect participants and their rights, and provide reassurance that research being conducted is ethical.