Flashcards in Z Scores, t-tests, 1-Way-ANOVA Deck (30)

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1

## Briefly, what is the z-score?

### Where all normal distributions are the same.

2

## How is the z-score calculated,

### The mean is subtracted (so it equals 0) and that is divided by variance (so SD is 1).

3

## What is the main problem with z-scores?

### They require us them know the sample parameters mean and SD.

4

## The t-distributions is (more/less) spread out then the z-distribution.

### More.

5

## What does the spread of the t-distribution depend on?

### The uncertainty of the estimates of the mean and SD.

6

## How is SEM directly calculated?

### Use lots of sample estimates of the mean and calculate the variance.

7

## How is SEM indirectly calculated?

### Divide the standard deviation of the sample by the square root of n.

8

## What is the main question in t test 1?

### Is the sample mean the same as the hypothesised population mean?

9

## What is t in t test 1?

### Distance between sample and hypothesised men’s divided by SEM.

10

## Why is a degree of freedom lost in t test 1?

### Because an estimate of the sample mean is being used.

11

## What is the main question in t test 2?

### Are the means of two samples the same?

12

## How is whether u1 = u2 assessed in t test 2?

### Look at how many SDs data points are apart.

13

## How is t calculated in t test 2?

### Using the standard deviations of the differences between the two means.

14

## What is generally used to assess and deal with homoscedasticity?

### Levene’s test, then if p<0.05, use Satterwaithe’s correction.

15

## What is the main question in t test 3?

### Is the mean difference of scores 0?

16

## How do all t tests express a difference between means?

### As SEM: the number of SDs from the mean.

17

## Give 2 limits of t tests.

### They assume normal distributions and they can only compare 2 means.

18

## In 1-way ANOVA, what is a direct estimate of the variance between means?

### Calculate variance from the observed means.

19

## In 1-way ANOVA, what is an indirect estimate of the variance between means?

### Calculate the SEM*2, which is the expected variance based on the spread of the individual data points about their mean.

20

## If an IV does not influence a DV, the direct and indirect estimate should be (the same/different).

### The same.

21

## If an IV does influence a DV, the direct and indirect estimate should be (the same/different).

### Different.

22

## In 1-way ANOVA, what makes up the observed value?

### Grand mean + level effect + error.

23

## What is the sum of squares between?

### The variability between level means (direct method).

24

## What is the error sum of squares?

### The variability due to noice (indirect method).

25

## What ratio is ANOVA looking at?

### The observed level effects to that expected from the error.

26

## What is effect size?

### The proportion of total variability explainer by knowing which level data belongs to.

27

## What is R squared?

### The proportion of variance explained in the experiment.

28

## What is adjusted R squared?

### The estimated proportion of variance in the population that level is likely to explain.

29

## In 1-way ANOVA, how is partial Eta-squared used?

### To refer to the proportion of variance in the data explained by a factor of an interaction.

30