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Flashcards in ETHICS Religion, Peace and Justice Deck (103)
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What is the point of War?

Many people think that nothing comes out of war, apart from death, destruction of property and land also disease and illness.


What is war?

War is considered as a last resort to a disagreement. Many religions believe that it should be avoided at all cost.


What causes war Religious reasons?

People who think it is right to fight over religious differences e.g. crusades (Christianity and Islam fighting over the Holy land)


What causes war Economic reasons?

This is normally when country fight over natural resources or to gain more farm land e.g. he First Iraq war is an example. Iraq invaded Kuwait for its oil.


What causes war Social reasons?

this is when different social groups fight over land, political differences or their rights e.g. The Rwandan genocide is an example as ethnic Tutsis attack and kill ethnic Hutus over perceived inequalities in politics and business.


What causes war Moral reasons?

One country might invade another to stop violence of repression. The US and UK bombed Serbia to stop ethnic cleansing in Kosovo.


How can war be prevented?

war can be prevented by following the just war theory, this is when war will only occur if everything else has been tried before it such as negotiations. This is to minimize the amount of deaths etc..


What are the conditions for just war?

-it must be fought by a legal recognized authority, eg, a government
-the cause of the war must be just
-the war must be fought with the intention to establish good or correct evil
-there must be a reasonable chance of success
-the war must be the last resort (after all diplomatic negotiations have been tried and failed)
-only sufficient force must be used and civilians must not be involved


What is the Just war Theory?

A Just War is one which has to be fought but is conducted according to certain conditions. These were developed by Thomas Aquinas (c1225-74) and Francisco de Vitoria (c1483-1546) and are still referred to by Christians today.
The theory is not intended to justify all wars but to prevent them by showing that going to war - except in certain limited circumstances - is wrong. The intention was to motivate states to find other ways of resolving conflicts, prevent war and to limit its effects.


What is the difference between a Just war and a Holy War?

The aim of a Holy War is to protect the religion of the people concerned. A famous Holy War fought by Christians was the Crusades of a thousand years ago when Christian Europe claimed the Holy Land from the Muslims who governed it.
A Just War is just if it is fought for a reason that is justifiable, and that carries sufficient moral weight. The country that wishes to use military force must demonstrate that there is a ‘just’ cause to do so.


What is a Holy War?

Until the forth century, christian teachings was against the use of violence. Christians teachings were about forgiveness etc... As the church slowly became more politically powerful they faced a dilemma. More of the political leaders were christian including the foreign relations etc..; so could the church support war? The crusades occurred when god said that the Christians wanted to own the holy land. This was known as a holy war or a war on behalf of god. However the Crusades were a disaster and the relations between western Europe and the middle east remain poor till today because of it. May show that god is not a pacifist.


What are christian attitudes to war?

Some Christians believe that war is often the result of the sin, the evil choices people made etc.. However some Christians may think that is is right to fight in order to deal with the greater evil rather then stand by. Also many christian believe that war can only be fought is certain moral principles are followed. Finally many Christians also believe that the rejection of war and violence is what Jesus stressed in the gospels, this is because they believe in pacifism; this means that they think that war is unacceptable (for all who draw the sword will die by the sword)(Matthew 26:52b)


What is pacifism?

this is the belief that peace should be the central value that people purse. People who are pacifists believe that the use of violence to settle agreements is wrong. Most people think that Christianity is a pacifist religion but because of the crusades this has been questioned.


What is nuclear pacifism?

A nuclear pacifist believe that the use of nuclear weapons can never be justified, this is because it has such an unfair advantage. However nuclear pacifists do not rule out violence in general.


What is Non-violent action?

This is when people take action that is not violent, it is kind of like protesting instead of fighting and has been proved in the past as very effective such as when the blacks were fighting for rights is america.


What is justice?

Justice can be defined as 'just behavior or treatment' For Christians the idea of justice comes from the fact that all people are created in the image of god and should there for be treated with respect. Christians believe that justice is important in society. It is the job of society to enforce justice however Christians believe that god has the final say in justice at the final judgement.


Christian attitudes towards punishment?

-In the Old Testament, God is presented as a God of Justice, who gave his people a series of Laws and Commandments that they are expected to follow.
-If the Old Testament refers to ‘an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth’, some might say that scripture highlights the importance of retribution.
-Where criminal law is similar to religious law perhaps vindication should be considered an aim of punishment in order to show the importance of the laws God has chosen to reveal.
-Jesus taught us Love (agape) and forgiveness, so it is crucial to allow a fresh start to those who have turned away from sin.
-Jesus insists that people should pray for God’s forgiveness (e.g. The Lord’s Prayer)and from his cross, Jesus forgave the criminal alongside him, as well as those who carried out his crucifixion.
Christians believe that criminals should be punished however the punishment should be fair.


What are the aims of punishment?

-Protection – To protect society from the criminal and to also protect the criminal from causing further harm.
-Retribution – Making the Criminal pay for what they have done. (e.g. Revenge/An Eye for an Eye)
-Deterrence – Punishment designed to put other criminals off from committing the crime.
-Reformation – To try and change the criminal, so they no longer commit the crime.
-Vindication – To ensure that people respect the law and that they are serious.


Attitudes towards capital punishment and is it justified?

-The Muslim attitudes to the death penalty- For only two crimes can the death penalty be used as punishment, which is murder and blasphemy. They believe in the Sanctity of Life, where life is valuable. This is the reason for them being mostly against the death penalty.
-Christian attitudes to the death penalty- The Lord’s Prayer recognizes that everyone sins and needs forgiveness.
‘Love your neighbor’ – Love should be shown to everyone (agape)
Ten Commandments (two interpretations. For = Laws are there for a reason. OR Against = Thou Shalt not Kill
Also takeoff someone's life is the violation of the will of god for us all to be free.
These reasons show that that capital punishment is not justified.


What is social justice?

this is the belief that that people should be treated fairly and with respect in a society, they should that equal access to everything including housing and education etc..


What is social injustice?

this is when people may be denied rights such as housing and education leading to poverty and discrimination which is unfair.


Christian views and responses to social injustice?

Christians believe that everyone should be equal. Christians believe that sin is the blame for lack of social justice. People are behaving in a selfish way that can hurt people around them. The crucifixion of Jesus is the reminder of the consequence of sin and the lack of social justice.


What is the liberation Theology?

Modern Christian movement focused on the need to defend the weak and poor against abuse of power committed by the rich and powerful.


Define pacifism?

The belief that using violence to resolve conflict is morally unjustified in all circumstances.


Define Holy War?

The belief that the use of violence to resolve conflict is morally justified if conditions are fulfilled.


Christian beliefs about justice in the world, teachings?

Genesis 1:27
"So god created man in his own image"
Galatians 3:28
"There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Jesus Christ.


Example of pacifism?

In america campaigning for black rights people would not fight but protest.


Campaigns to stop capital punishment?

Sister Helen Prejean, helped people on death row and protested against capital punishment.


Define protection?

To protect society from the criminal and to also protect the criminal from causing further harm.


Define Retribution?

Making the Criminal pay for what they have done. (e.g. Revenge/An Eye for an Eye)