Ethylene glycol toxicosis Flashcards Preview

Toxicology > Ethylene glycol toxicosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ethylene glycol toxicosis Deck (20)
1

T/F: Ethylene glycol is bitter, colorless, and odorless

FALSE--it is sweet (very palatable to animals!)

Everything else is true

2

What is the main source of toxicosis?

Ingestion of antifreeze

3

How common is poisoning in cats and dogs?

Very--2nd most common cause of fatal poisonings in animals (APCC)

4

What is the mortality rate from ethylene glycol toxicosis in dogs? When is it more common?

59-70%

More cases in fall, winter, and spring in NA

5

T/F: Swine and poultry have been poisoned by ethylene glycol

TRUE

6

What are the minimum lethal doses of the undiluted EG?

  • Humans, cats = 1.4 ml/kg
  • Dogs = 4.2-6.6 ml/kg
  • Poultry = 7-8 ml/kg

7

Where is EG absorbed/distributed?

Rapidly absorbed from the GIT (food delays absorption)

Rapidly distributed to all tissues including CNS

8

What is the half-life of EG in dogs?

11 hours (shorter in cats)

9

What is EG metabolized to?

Toxic metabolites, mainly in the liver

10

How does EG get converted to glyoxilic acid? What does that metabolized to?

  • EG is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenase to glycoaldehyde
  • Glycoaldehyde is oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenase to glycolic acid
  • Glycolic acid is oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenase to glyoxilic acid
  • Glyoxilic acid is metabolized to oxalic acid, glycine, formic acid, hippuric acid, and benzoic acid

11

What does oxalic acid bind to? What forms?

Binds to serum Ca to form insoluble Ca oxalate crystals (monohydrate) and hypocalcemia

12

How long are metabolites present?

Several days

13

T/F: A small amount of EG is excreted unchanged in the urine w/in 24hrs

TRUE

14

What is the mode of action for EG?

  • Direct GI irritation
  • Inc. serum osmolality (osmotic diuresis)
  • CNS depression

15

What is the MoA of of EG toxic metabolites?

Mainly causes metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure

16

How does glycoaldehyde cause CNS dysfunction?

By inhibition of respiration, glucose metabolism, serotonin metabolism, and alteration of amine concentration

17

T/F: Ca oxalate deposition contributes to CNS damage

TRUE

18

What mainly causes metabolic acidosis in EG toxicosis?

Mainly due to glycolic acid but also other acids

19

T/F: Most metabolites are cytotoxic to renal tubular epithelium

TRUE

20