Intro Flashcards Preview

Toxicology > Intro > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the 2 main aspects of clinical toxicology?

1) Diagnosis
2) Treatment

2

What are the similarities between pharmacology and toxicology?

Drugs can be poisons and poisons can be drugs (the dose is the difference)
Drugs and poisons are xenobiotics (foreign chemicals that the body does not produce)

3

What is a poison (toxicant)?

Can be defined as any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) when applied or introduced into the body may interfere with life processes or biological functions of the cells of the animal

4

What are the 4 natural sources of poisons?

Plants, animals, minerals, fungi/bacteria

5

What are examples of synthetic poisons?

Organophosphate and chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, organic herbisides

6

What is a toxin (biotoxin)?

A poison from a biologic process (e.g., zootoxins or animal toxins, phytotoxins or plant toxins, bacterial toxins and mycotoxins)

7

Toxic

Term used to describe the deleterious or undesirable effects of poisons

8

Toxicosis (poisoning or intoxication)

The DISEASE caused by exposure to a poison

9

Toxicity

The AMOUNT of a poison that under certain circumstances will cause toxic effects

10

How is toxicity expressed in mammals? In birds?

Mammals: usually expressed as LD50 (lethal dose 50) in mg/kg body weight
Birds: expressed as LC50 (lethal concentration 50) in mg/kg feed and in fish as LC50 in mg/liter water

11

Acute toxicity

The effect of a single dose or multiple doses during a 24 hour period

12

Subacute toxicity

The effect produced by daily exposure from one day to 30 days

13

Subchronic toxicity

The effect of exposure from 30 days to 90 days

14

Chronic toxicity

The effect produced by daily exposure for a period of 3 months (90 days) or more

15

Chronicity factor

The ratio between acute LD50 and chronic LD50

16

Extremely toxic

1 mg/kg or less

17

Highly toxic

> 1-50 mg/kg

18

Moderately toxic

> 50-500 mg/kg

19

Slightly toxic

> 0.5-5 g/kg

20

Practically nontoxic

> 5-15 g/kg

21

Relatively harmless

> 15 g/kg

22

The highest non-toxic dose (HNTD)

The highest or largest dose which does NOT result in undesirable or toxic alterations (clinical, hematologic, biochemical, or pathologic alterations)

23

Maximum tolerated dose or minimal toxic dose (MDT)

Similar to the highest non-toxic dose

24

Toxic dose low (TDL)

The lowest dose which produces toxic alterations and administering twice this dose will not cause death

25

Toxic dose high (TDH)

The dose which produces toxic alterations and administering twice this dose will result in death

26

No-effect level (maximum non toxic level)

The amount of a chemical that can be ingested without causing any deaths, illness or toxic alterations in any of the animals for the stated period (usually 90 days to 2 years or more depending on the species)

27

Lethal dose

The dose that causes death in any animal during the period of observation

28

LD0

The highest dose that does not cause any death

29

LD50

The dose that kills 50% of animals in a group

30

LD100

The lowest dose that kills all the animals in a group

31

Hazard

The danger from the POSSIBILITY of exposure

32

T/F: A poison may be highly toxic but not hazardous

TRUE

33

How is the risk factor calculated?

As the ratio between toxicity and use level