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Flashcards in Eukaryotic Cell Structure Deck (24)
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Describe the structure of the nucleus

Surrounded by a nuclear envelope(double membrane) which contains nuclear pores which allow the passage of large molecules such as rna to pass out of the nucleus.
Nucleoplasm which makes up the bulk of the nucleus ( jelly like material)
Chromosome consists of protein bound linear dna
The nucleolus it manufactures ribosomal rna and assembles ribosomes


What are the functions of the nucleus

To control the cells activities ( transcription of dna)

Retain genetic material of the cell in the from dna and chromosomes

Manufacture ribosomal rna and ribosomes


Describe the structure of the mitochondrion

They have a double membrane, inner one is folded to form structures called Cristae(large sa), inside is the matrix which contains enzymes involved in respiration


What is the mitochondrion function?

Site of aerobic respiration where atp is produced

Found in large numbers in cells that are very active and require a lot of energy


Describe the structure of the chloroplasts

Surrounded by a double membrane (highly selective in what enter and leaves )

Grana are stacks of disc like structures called thylakoids. Within the thylakoids are chlorophyll. Grana are linked together by lamellae


Function of chloroplasts

Site where photosynthesis takes place.

Grana membranes has provide a large SA


Describe the structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

A system of membranes enclosing a fluid filled space, surface is covered in ribosomes


Rough endoplasmic reticulum function

Provides large SA for the synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins

Provide a pathway for the transport of materials, especially proteins, throughout the cell


Smooth endoplasmic reticulum structure

Similar to RER but has no ribosomes


Smooth endoplasmic reticulum function

Synthesise, store and transport lipids and carbohydrates


Golgi apparatus structure

A group of fluid filled, membrane bound flattened sacs. Vesicles are often seen on the edge of the sacs


Golgi apparatus function

Transport, modify and store lipids

Form lysosomes

Add carbohydrate to proteins from glycoproteins

Produced secretory enzymes

Secrete carbohydrates


Golgi vesicles structure

A small fluid filled sac in the cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane and produced by the Golgi apparatus


Golgi vesicles function

Store lipids and proteins made by the Golgi apparatus and transports them out of the cell


Lysosomes structure

Surrounded by a membrane, no clear internal structure (type of Golgi vesicles)


Lysosomes function

Contain digestive enzymes called lysozymes, can be used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components of cells


Hydrolyse material ingested by phagocytic cells

Release enzymes to the outside of the cell to destroy material around the cell

Digest worn out organelles so that the useful chemicals they are made of can be re used

Completely break down cells after they die


Ribosomes structure

Very small organelle, made up or proteins and rna and not surrounded by a membrane


Ribosomes function

The site of protein synthesis


What are the 2 types of ribosomes

80s found in eukaryotic cells

70s found in prokaryotic cells


Cell wall structure

Rigid structure ( made of carbohydrate cellulose)

In fungi (chitin)

Microfibrils in cellulose Help strengthen the wall


Cells wall function

Supports cells and prevents them from changing shape


Vacuole structure

A membrane bound organelle

Contains cell Sap- weak solution of sugar and salts

Surrounding membrane is called tonoplast


Cell membrane structure

Made mainly of lipids and proteins


Cell membrane function

Regulates movement of substances in and out of cells