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Flashcards in Evolution Deck (24):
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Natural selection

Differential reproduction of an organism based upon fitness in its environment

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Fitness

The ability of an organism to pass on its alleles

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Types of selection

1. Stabilizing selection
2. Directional selection
3. Disruptive selection
4. Artificial selection
5. Sexual selection

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Stabilizing selection

Selection against the extremes (for the averages)

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Disruptive (divergent) selection

Selection against the averages (for the extremes)

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Directional selection

Selection against one extreme (favoring the opposite extreme)

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Artificial selection

Directional selection done by humans with selecting for traits in animals and crops

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Sexual selection

Differential mating between males and females

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Species

Organisms that are capable of reproduction of "fit" offspring

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Polymorphism

When multiple phenotypes exist within a population

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Adaptation

An inherited trait that confers greater fitness

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Specialization

An adaptation that gives a specific function or environment

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Inbreeding

Increased liklihood of mating between organisms with similar genotypes (limits genetic variation)

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Outbreeding

Increased liklihood of mating with organisms with different genotypes

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Genetic drift

Random change in allele frequencies in a population
-smaller populations are more susceptible to genetic drift

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Bottleneck

Dramatic decrease in a size of a population making it susceptible to genetic drift

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Types of evolution

1. Convergent
2. Divergent
3. Parallell

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Convergent evolution

Two species possess the same analogous structures unrelated to a common ancestor

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Divergent evolution

Divergent leading to distinct population/species

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Parallel evolution

Similiar evolutionary changed in different species due to similar environmental pressures

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Symbiosis types

1. Parasitism
2. Commemsalism
3. Mutualism

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Parasitism

When a species requires another species as a host to live, harming the host in process

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Commensalism

An organism requires another species as a host to live, but doesnt harm or benefit the host in process

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Mutualism

Symbiotic relationship between two organisms that confers fitness on both