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Flashcards in Evolution Deck (63)
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1

change in the genetic makeup of a population with time

evolution

2

discredited theory that said the new organs or changes occurred because of the needs of an organism (based on the use or disuse of an organ)

Lamarckian evolution

3

Lamarckian evolution: any useful characteristic -- in one generation was transmitted to the next generation

acquired

4

Only -- of sex cells and not acquired characteristics can be inherited

DNA

5

changes acquired during an individual's life are changes in the -- cells

somatic

6

ability to survive and reproduce

fitness

7

environmental pressures -- for the organism most fit to survive and reproduce

select

8

more offspring are produced than can survive (insufficient resources to support entire population)

overpopulation

9

offspring naturally show differences or -- in their characteristics compared to those of their parents

variations

10

Hugo de Vries suggest that -- are the cause of variations

mutations

11

the developing population must -- for the necessities of life

compete

12

due to competition, many young must die and the number of adults in the population generally remains -- from generation to generation

constant

13

over many generations of natural selection, the favorable changes called -- are perpetuated in the species

adaptations

14

accumulation of adaptations eventually results in such significant changes in the gene pool that a new species has --

evolved

15

evolution of new species

speciation

16

species are groups of individuals that can -- freely with each other but not with members of other species

interbreed

17

small local populations that form within a species

deme

18

If demes become -- speciation may occur

isolated

19

genetic and eventually reproductive isolation often results from the -- isolation of a population

geographic

20

when two species from different ancestors develop similar traits

convergent evolution

21

independent evolution of similar traits starting from a similar common ancestor

parallel evolution

22

species with a shared common ancestor develop differing traits due to their differing environments

divergent evolution

23

emergence of a number of lineages from a single ancestral species

adaptive radiation

24

distinct lifestyle

niche

25

includes all members of a particular species inhabiting a given location

population

26

a population's gene pool is the sum total of all the -- for any given trait in a population

alleles

27

relative frequency of a particular allele

gene frequency

28

evolution can be viewed as a result of changing -- within a population

gene frequencies

29

Hardy-Weinberg conditions

large population
random mating
no mutation, migration, natural selection (genes are equally successful at reproducing)

30

real populations have -- gene pools and migrating populations

unstable