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Flashcards in EVOLUTION Deck (54)
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Define micro-evolution and provide an example

- Describes the small scale changes within gene pools over generations
Eg.) The evolution of the B&W pepper moth during the industrial revolution


Why were the Galapagos islands of particular interest to Darwin?

- They were volcanic islands that were relatively young and easy to study
- They contained few species but high variation within populations of species
- Species varied from island to island
- Few people had documented scientific findings from the Galapagos


What mechanisms led to the speciation of Tiktaalik?

- Competition
- Variation
- Natural selection


What evidence supports the fact that tetrapods and fish are closely related?

- The embryos of modern fish and tetrapods look similar
- Both modern fish and tetrapods are vertebrates
- The DNA of modern fish and tetrapods are similar


In the fall, monarch butterflies will migrate to warmer climates in order to survive. This is an example of:

Behavioural adaptation


In the spring, the city of Winnipeg fogs to kill off mosquitoes. Most of these mosquitoes die but few pesticide resistant mosquitoes remain. The next year there is an increase on the number of pesticide resistant mosquitoes. This is an example of:

Physiological adaptation


Over millions of years, the blowhole of the whale has moved from the tip of its nose to the top of its head. This is an example of:

Structural adaptation


What type of adaptation does an arctic fox use to avoid predation?



The male birds of paradise will do a fancy dance to attract a mate. What type of adaptation is this?



A strain of pneumonia is showing antibiotic resistance and is becoming more common each year. This is an example of:

- Physiological adaptation
- Directional stabilization


Tiktaalik evolved from an aquatic species to a land dwelling species. This is an example of:

- Divergent evolution
- Adaptive radiation
- Natural selection


Baby birth rate has remained between 6-8 pounds for hundreds of years. This is an example of:

Stabilizing selection


What best explains the evolution of a long colourful tail in peacocks?

The founder effect


The finches of the Galapagos islands have evolved over thousands of years to have different beaks specialized to collect specific foods in their environments. This is an example of:

- Divergent evolution
- Adaptive radiation
- Speciation


Divergent evolution

Is the process in which an ancestral species gives rise to new species that are adapted to different environmental conditions.


The migration of butterflies, birds and caribou is an example of:

Behavioural adaptation


The elephant hawk moth will look and behave like a snake in its larval stage to avoid predation. This is an example of:

- Behavioural adaptation
- Structural adaptation


Stabilizing selection

Favours individuals with common phenotypes, and selects against those with extreme phenotypes


A population of sea stars are found in a range of sizes, from small(8cm) to large(16cm). Over time however, the average size of the population shifts so most sea stars in the population measure 12 cm across. This is an example of:

Stabilizing selection


Directional selection

Favours those with rare phenotypes and selects against those with common phenotypes


Artificial selection

Is when humans select specific organisms to breed to produce offspring with desired traits


Disruptive/diversifying selection

Favours those with extreme phenotypes and selects against the average


A population of flowers in a meadow show multiple colours of petals from pale pink to shades of darker pinks to a very dark Burgundy. Overtime, the population shifts and only very pale pink and very dark Burgundy petals are seen. This is an example of?

Disruptive selection


A population of scorpions is known for its toxic sting and its medium to large pincers. Overtime the population is made up of only scorpions with very large pincers. This is an example of:

Directional selection


What provides evidence that supports the theory of evolution?

- Palaeontology
- embryology
- Comparative anatomy
- Molecular genetics


Which 2 bones are found in parallel the forelimb of a frog, rat and human?

- Radius
- Ulna


Marine organisms known as limpets have shell colors that range from white to dark brown. The extreme variations in colour ( white and dark brown) are selected for since they blend into the surrounding environment. Over time these limpets evolve to be two distinct species. This is an example of:

- Disruptive selection
- Divergent selection


Describe the process of discovery that led Darwin to formulate his theory of evolution by natural selection.

- Darwin found fossils of Glyptodonts and noticed they resembled the prospect day South American armadillo and questioned if they could've evolved from the ancient Glyptodont.
- On the Galapagos islands, he collected 13 different finches and concluded that each species could adapt/specialize to fit into its own island environment.
- Darwin concluded that variations of different species uniquely adapt/specialize to their own island environments.


Homologous structures

Is when they have evolved from the same species but have different structures or functions


Analogous structures

Is when they have the same structural functions