Molecular Genetics part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Molecular Genetics part 1 Deck (33)
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1

What is a gene?

A specific portion of DNA that guides the production of specific proteins

2

How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?

23

3

What is the genotype for a female?

XX

4

Genotype of male

XY

5

How many pairs of autosomes do humans have?

22

6

What do scientists look for when creating a karyotype?

- Chromosome length
- Chromosome banding pattern
- Presence of satellites on chromosome
- Position of centromere in chromosome

7

Conjugation:

The transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another

8

Where are plasmids found?

In bacteria

9

Histone proteins:

Proteins that coil DNA tightly into chromosomes

10

What would cause sickness or death if injected into an organism?

- Virulent pneumonia
- Avirulent pneumonia mixed with heat treated virulent pneumonia

11

Which scientist used radioactively coated phosphorus and sulphur to prove DNA was the transformation factor?

Hershey and Chase

12

What did Avery, McCarty and MacLeod do?

The isolated virulent carbohydrates, DNA and protein and mixed it with avirulent bacteria to prove that DNA could move from one cell to another.

13

What was the transformation factor in Griffith's experiment in pneumonia?

DNA

14

Rosalind Franklin

Used X-ray diffraction to take pictures of the structure of DNA

15

The following is Chargaff's rule: [A] = [T] and [C] = [G]. Explain this rule.

The concentration of adenine equals that of thymine, and the concentration of cytosine equals that of guanine

16

What did photo 51 reveal about the structure of DNA?

DNA has a helical structure

17

What makes up a complete nucleotide?

- Deoxyribose sugar
- Phosphate
- Nitrogenous base

18

What kind of a backbone does DNA have?

Sugar phosphate

19

What makes up the genetic code in DNA?

The pairing of nitrogenous bases

20

What direction does gene replication occur?

5' to 3'

21

In which phase of DNA replication is the replication bubble created?

Initiation

22

In replication the leading strand is synthesized ______ and the lagging strand is synthesized _____

- Continuously
- Discontinuously

23

In replication, where do the replication forks form?

At several points along the DNA strand

24

Helicase:

An enzyme that unwinds the DNA helix at several replication forks

25

Binding protein:

Holds the strands of DNA open at each replication fork so they do not recoil

26

Leading strand:

Is synthesized continuously 5' to 3'

27

Lagging strand:

Is synthesized discontinuously 5' to 3'

28

Polymerase 3

Synthesizes a strand of complementary DNA continuously in the 5' to 3' direction on both leading and lagging strands

29

Primase:

Puts down a short RNA primer on the lagging strand

30

Polymerase 2:

Proof reads the newly synthesized DNA