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Flashcards in Evolution Deck (81)
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1

What are the other names for the theory of abiogenesis?

*Autogenesis
* Theory of spontaneous creation

2

What did the theory of abiogenesis state?

This theory stated that life did not come from outer space, it was instead spontaneously generated from non living matter.

3

Who disproved the theory of abiogenesis?

This was disproved by many scientists out of which the most prominent are
* Louis Pasteur - swan neck exp.
*Francesco Redi - Maggot on jar
* Spallanzi - He created a boiled nutrient broth

4

The Biochemical origin of life was proposed by...?

Oparin and Haldane

5

3600 yrs ago the atmosphere was devoid of ........................

free oxygen

6

Where did Oparin Haldane say that the synthesis of the main constituents of life take place ?

He called it the primordial soup, which is now referred to as the sea.

7

Which exp. shows that reducing atm is required for abiotic synthesis ?

Miller - Urey's exp. This experiment suggested that the presence of free oxygen would modify the intermediate products and would have hence changed the outcome.

8

What are Coacervates?

These are clumps of organic macromolecules present in the form of a colloidal particle and is capable of growth and replication. Coacervates contain proteins , nucleoproteins etc. and because of the resemblance to protoplasm they are called the prebiotic structures.

9

The first sign of self perpetuating life was displayed by ............?

nucleic acids , as they had the ability to replicate and showed hereditary function.

10

The fist organisms were ..... ?

Heterotrophic, anaerobic, virus like nucleoprotein substances

11

Which structures did Oparin say resembled bacteria.

Coacervates with nucleoproteins

12

What kind of autotrophism came first?

Chemo Autotropism

13

What led to the usage of water instead of sulphides

The development of chlorophylls from bacteriochlorophylls.

14

The first oxygenic and aerobic photoautotrophs were ...............?

Cyano bacteria

15

What does congnogeny mean?

It involves the diversification of prokaryotes and eukaryotes into chem and photo autotrophs and heterotrophs and further cell differentiation and later development of multicellular organisms.

16

Why are coacervates not considered possible precusors of life?

This is because though the can replicate they do not have a lipid or protein membrane and hence cannot reproduce.

17

What are the two protobionts observed in Miller Urey's experiment?

Coacervates and Microspheres

18

Who obtained proteinoid microspheres?

Sydney Fox

19

What are Liposomes?

Compartmentalised structures that enclose fluid/liquid.

20

What impact did cyano bacteria have on the evolution of life?

Cyanobacteria released healthy amounts of oxygen

21

What impact did cyano bacteria have on the evolution of life?

Cyanobacteria released healthy amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere and converted the reducing atm into an oxidising one.In doing so it also synthesised O3 and created the ozone layer.

22

Introduction of free oxygen into the atm. resulted in the oxygen revolution. Explain the term.

Ultimately the appearance of oxygen results in the abstinence of abiotic synthesis.

23

What is the definition of a characteristic?

They are the details of a particular trait w.r.t. appearance and behaviour.

24

What did Darwin conclude based on his observations?

He concluded that all living organisms share similarities to varying degrees and they may have common ancestors.

25

The geological history of the Earth correlates with the biological history of the Earth.

Just a statement.

26

What kind of fitness did Darwin refer to when he postulated the theory of natural selection?

Reproductive fitness. He believed that an organism more adapted to a certain environment would produce more offspring than the others.

27

When did the free living Eukaryotes originate?

They originated 1.5 billion years ago.

28

Which book did Darwin publish?

On the Origin of Species

29

What is a fossil?

Fossils are the preserved remains of the hard parts of an organism in rock.

30

Which rocks are the richest in fossils?

Sedimentary