Evolution Of Species- Life On Earth Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Evolution Of Species- Life On Earth Deck (20):
0

What is a mutation?

A mutation is a random change to the genetic material of an organism

1

What is an organism called if it has a mutation to its phenotype?

A mutant

2

Name the 2 mutagenic agents

Radiation
Chemicals

3

What is an advantageous mutation in plants called and explain why it's beneficial

Polyploidy
They have extra sets of chromosomes leading to increased fruit size and yield

4

What is a disadvantage of mutation in humans?

It can cause disabilities like cystic fibrosis

5

What is an adaptation?

An adaptation is an inherited characteristic that makes an organism well suited to survival in its environment

6

Name 3 types of adaptation

•structural
•physiological
•behavioural

7

What is innate behaviour?

It means that it is inherited and is instinctive behaviour

8

What is habituation?

Short term learning

9

What is imprinting

Behaviour that becomes permanent shortly after birth

10

What is territorial behaviour?

Behaviour that is exhibited by an animal that defends an area

11

What is variation?

Different characteristics or traits that are present within a species

12

Name 3 ways organisms die off

Lack of food
Overcrowding
Inability to escape predators

13

What is natural selection?

The survival of organisms that have favourable characteristics to suit their environment breed to pass on these benefits and the other ones die off

14

Give 3 examples of natural selection

•peppered moths
•bacterial resistance to antibiotic
•sickles blood cells that prevent malaria

15

What is speciation?

The formation of a new species

16

When does speciation occur?

When there are barriers

17

Name the 3 types of barriers and give an example of each

•reproductive- populations sexually receptive at different times
•geographical-river, mountains etc
•ecological- temperature, pH

18

What does the barrier cause the population to become?

They become isolated and natural selection follows two different paths due to different conditions

19

What happens after a long time if the barrier is removed?

The two species can't interbreed as they are too different