Flashcards in Evolution Of Species- Life On Earth Deck (20):
What is a mutation?
A mutation is a random change to the genetic material of an organism
What is an organism called if it has a mutation to its phenotype?
Name the 2 mutagenic agents
What is an advantageous mutation in plants called and explain why it's beneficial
They have extra sets of chromosomes leading to increased fruit size and yield
What is a disadvantage of mutation in humans?
It can cause disabilities like cystic fibrosis
What is an adaptation?
An adaptation is an inherited characteristic that makes an organism well suited to survival in its environment
Name 3 types of adaptation
What is innate behaviour?
It means that it is inherited and is instinctive behaviour
What is habituation?
Short term learning
What is imprinting
Behaviour that becomes permanent shortly after birth
What is territorial behaviour?
Behaviour that is exhibited by an animal that defends an area
What is variation?
Different characteristics or traits that are present within a species
Name 3 ways organisms die off
Lack of food
Inability to escape predators
What is natural selection?
The survival of organisms that have favourable characteristics to suit their environment breed to pass on these benefits and the other ones die off
Give 3 examples of natural selection
•bacterial resistance to antibiotic
•sickles blood cells that prevent malaria
What is speciation?
The formation of a new species
When does speciation occur?
When there are barriers
Name the 3 types of barriers and give an example of each
•reproductive- populations sexually receptive at different times
•geographical-river, mountains etc
•ecological- temperature, pH
What does the barrier cause the population to become?
They become isolated and natural selection follows two different paths due to different conditions