Flashcards in S5 Ultrastructures Deck (49):
What are all living things made up of?
How can unicellular organisms exist as single cells?
Because they contain all of the organelles and metabolises to function properly
What are metabolites?
Name 2 unicellular organisms?
How does the paramecium move?
Because it has Cilia
What do multicellular organisms contain?
A variety of cell types arranged into to tissues to carry out vital functions
What cells is the cheek epithelium tissue made up of?
What is the function of the epithelial cell?
To protect the mouth lining
What is a specialised structural feature of epithelial cells?
It has a flat irregular shape
Name two cells that are in blood?
Red blood cells
White blood cells
What is the function of red blood cell?
To carry oxygen to living cells around the body
Why are red blood cells special?
They have a biconcave shape for large surface area
No nucleus to pack more haemoglobin
What is the function of white blood cells?
To destroy pathogens
Why is a white blood cell special?
They can change shape to engulf pathogens, they contain digestive enzymes
What is the function of motor neurons?
To send chemical messages to the body from the brain
What is the specialised feature of a motor neuron?
It has a long axon allowing faster communication
Name 2 cells in the ciliated epithelium tissue
Ciliated epithelial cell
What does the goblet cell do and why is it special?
It produces mucus
It's cup shaped allowing it to produce more mucus
What do the ciliated epithelial do and why are they special?
They sweep mucus and dirt upwards away from the lungs
They are beating hairs
What is the function of smooth muscle cells,
They move food to the stomach by peristalsis
Why are smooth muscle cells special?
They are spindle shaped so are able to contract
What two cells are in the lower leaf epidermis?
What shape are epidermal cells and what's their function?
They have an irregular shape and their function is protection
What shape are guard cells and what is their function?
They are sausage shaped and have a thick inner cell wall facing the stomata
They control gaseous exchange
What is Palisade mesophyll's function and special features?
Function-- light absorption and photosynthesis
Specialised structural features- columnar shaped, packed full of chloroplasts
What is Spongy mesophyll's function and features
Function- secondary photosynthesis
Features- loose arrangement and moist surface for absorption of co2
What cell does the phloem contain that has cytoplasmic strands and transports soluble carbohydrates?
Th sieve tube
What do companion cells do?
They control the sieve tubes
Why are companion cells special?
They have a larger nucleus
What is the vessel cell's function and special features in the xylem?
It supports the plant and transports water
It has a hollow tube and rings of lignin
What two cells are in the root tissue?
Root hair cell
What is epidermal cell's function and what shape is it?
It's rectangular and fits together like a brick wall
What is the function and special feature if a root hair cell?
To absorb water and mineral salts
It has long extensions to increase the surface area
What is the function of the nucleolus?
It produces ribosomes
What is the function of the nucleus?
Contains DNA and controls cell activities
What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
It has pores to allow the exit of mRNA to go to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm for protein synthesis
What is the function of the mitochondria?
They are the site of aerobic respiration
What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
It isolates and transports lipids
What is the function of the ribosomes?
The site of protein synthesis
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
It isolates and transports proteins
Where do vesicles come from?
They come from the rough endoplasmic reticulum
What do vesicles join together to become?
The Golgi apparatus body
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?
Where proteins are packaged and processed
Part of the Golgi containing the packaged protein pinches off to form -------
What do the secretory vesicles do?
They merge into the plasma membrane so the protein will be secreted from the cell
List the cycle involving the vesicles and Golgi apparatus etc
3. Rough ER
5. Golgi apparatus
6. Secretory vesicles
7. Plasma membrane
What is the centriole important in?
What is the fiction of the plasma membrane?
To control the entry and exit of materials in and out the cell