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Flashcards in S5 Ultrastructures Deck (49):
0

What are all living things made up of?

Cells

1

How can unicellular organisms exist as single cells?

Because they contain all of the organelles and metabolises to function properly

2

What are metabolites?

Necessary chemicals

3

Name 2 unicellular organisms?

Paramecium
Euglena

4

How does the paramecium move?

Because it has Cilia

5

What do multicellular organisms contain?

A variety of cell types arranged into to tissues to carry out vital functions

6

What cells is the cheek epithelium tissue made up of?

Epithelial

7

What is the function of the epithelial cell?

To protect the mouth lining

8

What is a specialised structural feature of epithelial cells?

It has a flat irregular shape

9

Name two cells that are in blood?

Red blood cells
White blood cells

10

What is the function of red blood cell?

To carry oxygen to living cells around the body

11

Why are red blood cells special?

They have a biconcave shape for large surface area
No nucleus to pack more haemoglobin

12

What is the function of white blood cells?

To destroy pathogens

13

Why is a white blood cell special?

They can change shape to engulf pathogens, they contain digestive enzymes

14

What is the function of motor neurons?

To send chemical messages to the body from the brain

15

What is the specialised feature of a motor neuron?

It has a long axon allowing faster communication

16

Name 2 cells in the ciliated epithelium tissue

Goblet cell
Ciliated epithelial cell

17

What does the goblet cell do and why is it special?

It produces mucus
It's cup shaped allowing it to produce more mucus

18

What do the ciliated epithelial do and why are they special?

They sweep mucus and dirt upwards away from the lungs
They are beating hairs

19

What is the function of smooth muscle cells,

They move food to the stomach by peristalsis

20

Why are smooth muscle cells special?

They are spindle shaped so are able to contract

21

What two cells are in the lower leaf epidermis?

Epidermal cells
Guard cells

22

What shape are epidermal cells and what's their function?

They have an irregular shape and their function is protection

23

What shape are guard cells and what is their function?

They are sausage shaped and have a thick inner cell wall facing the stomata

They control gaseous exchange

24

What is Palisade mesophyll's function and special features?

Function-- light absorption and photosynthesis
Specialised structural features- columnar shaped, packed full of chloroplasts

25

What is Spongy mesophyll's function and features

Function- secondary photosynthesis
Features- loose arrangement and moist surface for absorption of co2

26

What cell does the phloem contain that has cytoplasmic strands and transports soluble carbohydrates?

Th sieve tube

27

What do companion cells do?

They control the sieve tubes

28

Why are companion cells special?

They have a larger nucleus

29

What is the vessel cell's function and special features in the xylem?

It supports the plant and transports water
It has a hollow tube and rings of lignin

30

What two cells are in the root tissue?

Epidermal cell
Root hair cell

31

What is epidermal cell's function and what shape is it?

To protect
It's rectangular and fits together like a brick wall

32

What is the function and special feature if a root hair cell?

To absorb water and mineral salts
It has long extensions to increase the surface area

33

What is the function of the nucleolus?

It produces ribosomes

34

What is the function of the nucleus?

Contains DNA and controls cell activities

35

What is the function of the nuclear membrane?

It has pores to allow the exit of mRNA to go to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm for protein synthesis

36

What is the function of the mitochondria?

They are the site of aerobic respiration

37

What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

It isolates and transports lipids

38

What is the function of the ribosomes?

The site of protein synthesis

39

What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

It isolates and transports proteins

40

Where do vesicles come from?

They come from the rough endoplasmic reticulum

41

What do vesicles join together to become?

The Golgi apparatus body

42

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

Where proteins are packaged and processed

43

Part of the Golgi containing the packaged protein pinches off to form -------

Secretory vesicles

44

What do the secretory vesicles do?

They merge into the plasma membrane so the protein will be secreted from the cell

45

List the cycle involving the vesicles and Golgi apparatus etc

1. Nucleus
2. Ribosome
3. Rough ER
4. Vesicle
5. Golgi apparatus
6. Secretory vesicles
7. Plasma membrane

46

What is the centriole important in?

Mitosis
Meiosis

47

What is the fiction of the plasma membrane?

To control the entry and exit of materials in and out the cell

48

What is the function of lysosomes?

The contain powerful digestive enzymes which are used in phagocytosis or may even digest the cell itself