EX 2; Adrenal Gland Flashcards Preview

AU14 Physiology > EX 2; Adrenal Gland > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX 2; Adrenal Gland Deck (57):
1

Where is the adrenal gland located

on top of each kidney

2

What are the two portions of the adrenal gland

adrenal medulla (inner)
adrenal cortex (outer)

3

This portion of the adrenal gland develops from neural crest cells

medulla

4

This portion of the adrenal gland is part of the endocrine system (not nervous)

cortex

5

This portion of the adrenal gland develops from intermediate mesoderm

cortex

6

This portion of the adrenal gland is part of the sympathetic nervous system

medulla

7

This portion of the adrenal gland secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine

medulla

8

This portion of the adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones

cortex

9

The medulla contains terminals of prganglionic axons which release what

acetylcholine

10

These types of cells in the medulla have no axons

postganglionic cells (chromaffin cells)

11

Why is the adrenal medulla classified as a gland

because E and NE are released from chromaffin cells into the blood rather than a synapse

12

The action of phenyl-N-methyltransferase means that most of the secreted hormone in the medulla is what

epinephrine

13

Why is NE and E also released from the medulla if it is already stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system

the synapse is quickly shut off and this allows for E to stay in the blood
allows for the release of glucose for "fight or flight"

14

What are the three zones of the adrenal cortex

zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata
zona reticularis

15

This layer of the cortex is the outer most layer

zona glomerulosa

16

This layer of the cortex is the middle layer

zona fasciculata

17

This layer of the cortex is the innermost layer (the medulla is deep to it)

zona reticularis

18

Aldosterone (mineralcorticoid) is secreted in this zona

glomerulosa

19

DHEA and androstenedione are secreted in this zona

reticularis

20

Cortisol and corticosterone (glucocorticoids) are secreted in this zona

fasciculata

21

Steriods are secrete in response to this, except aldosterone secretion is regulated more strongly by other signals

ACTH

22

Zona glomerulosa contains high levels of what, and is deficient in the enzymes that convert corticosterone to cortisol or androgens

aldosterone synthase

23

What is the principle action of aldosterone

stimulate Na and H20 retention in the kidney; maintaining blood volume (Na out of the blood)

24

What three things is aldosterone secretion stimulated by

increase in plasma angiotension II, ACTH, or K
decrease in plasma pH
decrease in blood pressure

25

Increase sodium intake inhibits what

secretion of aldosterone

26

Which is more physiologically important, cortisol or corticosterone

cortisol

27

Glucocorticoid synthesis and secretion is regulated by what

ACTH

28

ACTH release is stimulated by what in response to neural input

CRH

29

What kind of feedback mechanism on CRH and ACTH does cortisol have

negative feedback

30

What are the two major effects of glucocorticoids

increase metabolic fuel availability and use

31

What are two minor effects of glucocorticoids that become important during a stress response

maintain blood pressure
inhibits non-essential function

32

This is a precursor of other sex steroids so it serves as a reservoir for conversion in other tissues

DHEA

33

Where is DHEA also produced

gonads
skin
brain
fat
peripheral concentrations indicative of adrenal activity

34

This is an extragonadal source of testosterone and estradiol that can be made from DHEA, regulated by ACTH

androstenedione

35

What differs about sex steroid production in pre and post menopausal women

pre; adrenal secretion same as ovarian
post; adrenal is sole source

36

What three things are influenced by the sex steroids (DHEA, androstenedione)

mood
hair growth
erythropoiesis

37

This individual was among the first to view the stress response as adaptive, i.e a good thing

Hans Selye

38

A stress response stimulates what

hypothalamic CRH neurons and input to the SNS

39

SNS activation results in specific organ responses as well as what

increased circulating epinephrine from the adrenal medulla; rapid response

40

Activation of the HPA axis results in increased cortisol secretion which increases what

the availability of metabolic fuel and regulation of other functions; this is a delayed response

41

What are the three primary goals of the human stress response

maintain blood pressure
mobilize metabolic fuel or increase availability
inhibit non-essential functions that would otherwise use energy needed to combat the stressor

42

Cortisol maintains circulating concentrations of what by stimulating synthesis of liver enzymes needed for gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis

blood glucose

43

Gluccocorticoids have what two actions

anti-inflammatory
anti-immune
(inhibitory cytokines)

44

Effects of chronic SNS activation are confounded or aggravated by the increased action of cortisol, which effects what two conditions

atherosclerosis
hypertension

45

What turn a short term response into chronic activation

inability to shut off the response

46

This disease is caused by adrenal insufficiency

Addison's disease (JFK)

47

Complete lack of cortisol is what

fatal

48

What are three causes for primary adrenal insufficiency

disease
congenital disorder
autoimmune disorder

49

What are two causes for secondary adrenal insufficiency

pituitary problem
glucocorticoid problem

50

What is a ramification for dentistry involving adrenal insufficiency

hyperpigmentation

51

What are two symptoms of adrenal insufficiency

low cortisol and high ACTH
hyperpigmentation

52

How would you treat adrenal insufficiency

exogenous glucocorticoids

53

Hypercortisolinemia is also know as what

Cushing's disease

54

What is the primary cause of Cushing's disease

pituitary tumor

55

What are four symptoms of Cushing's

excess tissue catabolism especially in bone, skin, and fat
diabetes-like symptoms
impaired immune function
threat of hypertension

56

What is the treatment for Cushing's

surgical removal of the tumor

57

What is a ramification of Cushing's on dentistry

mostly concerned with excess cortisol impairing the immune response after a procedure