EX 2; Growth and Diabetes Flashcards Preview

AU14 Physiology > EX 2; Growth and Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX 2; Growth and Diabetes Deck (53):
1

This is the principle factor that regulates growth

genetics

2

This is a critical factors in regulating growth

nutrition; begins in utero

3

This is an often forgetting factor of growth

freedom from disease

4

What are four important growth regulating endocrine factors

hormones of the growth axis
thyroid hormones
glucose-regulating hormones
gonadal steroids

5

What are some hormones of the growth axis

IgF1 and IgF2; insulin-like growth factor
GHRH
GH

6

chronic elevation of this rill inhibit growth (GHRH/GH)

cortisol

7

What are the two basic requirements of growth

cell division/replication
protein synthesis

8

The final height is determined by what

growth of the long bones

9

Long bones grow as this is replaced by bone

epiphyseal plate cartilage

10

Cartilage replacement adds bone to where

the ends of both diaphysis

11

GH increases what on the chondrocytes, stimulating replication

IgF1 receptors

12

Epiphyseal plates ossify when?

at puberty
which is why males are generally taller because puberty is later/longer

13

What are two hypothalamic hormones that regular GH secretion

GHRH
somatostatin

14

Pituitary GH has these three effects

mitogenic peptide hormone
has some direct effects on somatic tissues
stimulates secretion of IGF1 from liver and other tissues

15

What are two direct effects on somatic tissues of pituitary GH

stimulates protein synthesis
anti-insulin effects

16

Feedback regulation of GH secretion by long and short loop negative feedbacks have what three effects

inhibition of GHRH and GH secretion
stimulation of SS secretion
both GHRH and SS exhibit contrasting diurnal patters of secretion (GHRH increases during early sleep)

17

GH induces precursor cells in bone and other tissues to differentiate and do what

secrete IGF-1 which stimulates cell division

18

The anti-insulin effects by GH have what three consequences

renders adipocytes more responsive to stimuli that induce the breakdown of triglycerides, releasing FA into blood
stimulates gluconeogenesis
reduces ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake

19

Somatic growth is the result of the interactions between what

GH and IGF-1
Example; GH stimulates maturation of chondroblasts and IGF-1 stimulates cell division

20

Deficits in either GH or IGF-1 cause what

reduced growth

21

What can be two defects in GH of IGF-1

genetic mutations
defects caused by malnutrition

22

Why are there no genetic mutations for IGF-1/receptor

The fetus needs it to grow, if there is a mutation, the fetus will die

23

GH production is affected by what

age

24

When is GH production the highest/lowest

highest = adolescence
lowest = adult
effects of GH decrease on somatic tissues

25

GH synthesis and activity is regulated by what

other hormones like sex steroids, thyroid hormones

26

What four effects do the sex steroids have on GH synthesis and activity

stimulate GH synthesis
stimulate IGF-1 synthesis
skeletal growth; stimulates prepubertal bone growth
causes fusion of epiphyseal plates inhibiting growth

27

What two effects do thyroid hormones have on GH synthesis and activity

regulates GH synthesis
required for GH effects

28

These have anti-growth effects

cortisol/glucocorticoids

29

Excess production of GH results in what

acromegaly and gigantism

30

What typical causes excess GH

pituitary tumor

31

Gigantism results from what

pre-pubertal onset of excess GH

32

Acromegaly results from what

post-pubertal onset of excess GH

33

What are two considerations from patients with excess GH

remove tumor or give SS

34

Which is more common, GH excess or GH deficiency

deficiency; relatively common

35

What causes dwarfism

lack of GH receptor which leads to no IGF synthesis

36

This is when fibroblast growth factor receptor constitutively active which results in abnormal cartilage development

achondroplasia

37

What are some considerations for patients with GH deficiency

macroglossia, enlarged salivary glands, excess cementum, delayed shedding and replacement, etc.

38

What becomes of athletes that take GH

they don't get taller, the build muscle (including heart muscle)

39

What are some symptoms of GH abuse

they resemble acromegaly
also consider the anti-insulin actions of GH; bones thicken, cardiovascular problems, diabetic symptoms, etc.

40

This involves a disruption in the normal function of insulin

diabetes

41

This is a peptide hormone produced in the pancreas

insulin

42

What does insulin normally regulate

glucose transport into the cells

43

What kind of hormone does insulin act as

an anabolic hormone, stimulating mitosis, cell growth, etc.

44

Loss of insulin function can lead to what

ketoacidosis and can be fatal

45

This type of diabetes is an autoimmune disorder with onset early in life, destroys pancreatic β cells. (5-8% diabetics)

Type 1

46

This type of diabetes is a combination of insulin resistance and insulin deficiency, onset later in life

type II

47

How can you manage diabetes type I and II

type I; insulin supplementation
type II; dietary and lifestyle controls

48

What is the treatment for type II

can also include insulin sensitizers and insulin supplemental enhance the insulin receptor and cells

49

What are four symptoms of diabetes, linked to the increase of circulating glucose

elevated fasting glucose levels
polyuria
fatigue
blurred vision

50

What are five common complications of diabetes, linked to the chronic hyperglycemia

kidney failure
vascular disease
blindless
skin/mucosal infections
periodontal diseases

51

what are three considerations to keep in mind with a dental patient with diabetes

vascular diseases affect teeth
dehydration can reduce salivary flow
increased risk of periodontal disease

52

What should the dental provider be aware of with type I

be familiar with history
increased risk of periodontal disease

53

What should the dental provider be aware of with type II

emphasize the importance of maintaining glycemic control
frequently have cardiovascular and renal disease