EX1; Sensory Physiology Flashcards Preview

AU14 Physiology > EX1; Sensory Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX1; Sensory Physiology Deck (40):
1

Unique experience associated with a particular modality beings where

at a receptor

2

Initial interaction of stimulus with receptor is this; transformation of physical energy into neural signal

transduction

3

The type of energy that a given receptor type is most sensitive to is called what

adequate stimulus

4

Sensory specificity is due to what

limited sensitive range of a receptor

5

This law states that central connections determine modality like; stimulation of optic nerve bypassing receptors - light, stimulation of auditory nerve bypassing receptor - sound

Law of Specific Nerve Energies

6

What are the 5 types of sensory receptors

mechanoreceptors
thermoreceptors
photoreceptors
chemoreceptors
nociceptors

7

Somatosensory uses what types of sensory receptors

mechano
thermo
chemo
noci

8

Olfaction and taste uses what type of sensory receptor

chemo

9

Vision uses what type of sensory receptor

photo

10

Audition and balance uses what type of sensory receptor

mechano

11

A physical (direct) interaction of stimulus with membrane protein opens up what

ion channels; somatosensory, vestibular, auditory, taste

12

A molecular interaction of stimulus with a membrane proteins involves what

G-protein; vision, taste, olfaction

13

What are the three steps of direct transduction in the taste system

1. Na enters through epithelial Na channels
2. action potentials lead to Ca entry
3. release of ATP as neurotransmitter

14

What are the three steps of molecular G-protein couples transduction for "sweet" stimuli

1. sugars bind to receptor coupled G-protien
2. release of intracellular Ca activates TRPm5 channel (transient receptor potential)
3. depolarization leads to action potentials and release of neurotransmitter ATP

15

This is a family of ion channels first found in Drosophila comprised of 6 transmembrane domains with a channel between the 5th and 6th

transient receptor potentials channels (TRP)

16

Which ion do TRP channels pass with a large variety of activating mechanisms

Ca

17

What 7 things can open different TRP channels

intracellular Ca
temperature
chemicals
sounds
light
pH and osmolarity
mechanical

18

The increase of these three things codes for intensity

increase in stimulus intensity
increase in receptor potential
increase in # of action potentials

19

The relationship between stimulus intensity and neural and perceptual responses is sometimes what

linear

20

This is not a precise value (statistical concept)

threshold

21

What is the function of sensitivity of receptors

require a stimulus level that produces an action potential

22

Threshold is not only a function of the stimulus, it can also be affected by what

psychological, neurological, or pharmacological factors
can be useful diagnostic tool

23

This is what a receptor (or neuron) is sensitive to

receptive field; smaller would be more finer and spatially limited

24

True or False
There is across neuron coding for olfactory quality

True; comparing activity across olfactory fibers provides a more or less infinite number of patterns

25

What two types of duration does a sensory stimulus undergo

rapidly adapting
slowing adapting

26

This also plays a role in the location of the sensory stimulus

lateral inhibition

27

This type of inhibition is where a hyperpolarized axon terminal leads to less Ca entry and less neurotransmitter release

presynaptic inhibition

28

This type of inhibition is where EPSPs and IPSPs interact; spatial and temporal summation

postsynaptic inhibition

29

What are the 5 steps of the auditory pathway

1. hair cells (receptor cells) in cochlea
2. innervation by VIII nerve
3. VIII nerve synapses with cochlea nuclei
4. ascending sensoy pathway to cortex
5. efferent pathway from superior olivary nuclei

30

This has the descending pathway to auditory receptor cell

superior olivary nuclei

31

Efferents from the superior olive synapse on what and functions to what

hair receptor cells
functions to "set gain" of receptor neuron

32

The efferent synapse from the superior olive is on what

inhibitory nicotinic receptor; Caa activated K channel leads to hyperpolarization

33

The somatotopic map (homunculus) involves what

body representation

34

The tonotopic map involves what

auditory pitch representation

35

The retinotopic map involves what

visual field representation

36

The peripheral receptor density (in homunculus) is represented centrally by what

spatial extent

37

What are the two sensory maps that are dynamic (plasticity)

experience
neurological injury

38

There is evidence to support increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in which type of people

string players

39

What things are involved with the dynamic sensory map of experience

synaptic efficacy; long tern potentiation
new synapses
loss of inhibition

40

What thing is involved with the dynamic sensory map of neurological experience

collateral sprouting