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1
Q

What were the conclusions of Freud (Some Psychological Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction between the Sexes) regarding young boys?

A

-biologically driven Oedipus complex in boys: long for mother and jealous of father for having sexual relationships
-Feminine attitude: believed boys show bisexual orientation at this phase and want to replace their mother
-boys who wet the bed have sexual desires and may develop these by overhearing parents talk about sex
-boys don’t show pleasure or interest in girls’ genital areas until they experience the threat of castration (losing genitals due to not having children) and they are persuaded to have heterosexual relationships

2
Q

What were the conclusions of Freud (Some Psychological Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction between the Sexes) regarding young girls?

A

-electra complex: less distinguishable in girls, but believed they continuously long for their father and want to have children with him
-girls show desire instantly when they see a boy’s genital region, and when they recognize the penis as large and “superior”, they develop envy
-girls only lose penis envy when they’re narcissistic or in a state of psychosis
-at the end of their childhood, girls develop the desire to have children and this is where their true transformation into a woman is

3
Q

What are some limitations and obscurities about the Freud (Some Psychological Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction between the Sexes) article?

A

-little info or theories before on the sexuality of females, and Freud assumed it to be analogous to males
-none of his theories can actually be observed, and wouldn’t be ethical to try

4
Q

What is social learning theory, outlined in Hogben (Using Social Learning Theory to Explain Individual Differences in Human Sexuality)?

A

-all repeated sexual behaviors have motives behind them, all behaviors have some reward the person is hoping to get
-rewards for the behavior reinforce the behavior
-differences in personalities change the behaviors in people

5
Q

How does Hogben (Using Social Learning Theory to Explain Individual Differences in Human Sexuality) explain the development of sexuality?

A

-development: a person learns about sexual relationships and sexual pleasure, similar to how people learn aggression (Bobo Doll experiment), instead of having a biological drive to act a certain way sexually. certain behaviors may be reinforced throughout a person’s life and the consumption of media showing behaviors may make people believe that they should act that way to fit in with society

6
Q

How does Hogben (Using Social Learning Theory to Explain Individual Differences in Human Sexuality) explain adolescent sexuality and contraception?

A

-adolescents may engage in sexual behavior when they don’t have any external factors to stop them, or out of rebellion for the forces they do have
-lack of education promotes these behaviors and prevents teens from speaking up about using contraception, due to societal stigma
-teens don’t see enough models of safe sex and contraception use, so they don’t see it as the norm and repeat the behavior
-difficult to disassociate the pleasure from sex and negatively reinforce the behavior

7
Q

How does Hogben (Using Social Learning Theory to Explain Individual Differences in Human Sexuality) explain health related sexual behavior?

A

-lack of education and stigma can prevent people from using protection
-if people watch others go against norms and successfully use protection, then education can spread and sexually spread diseases can be less common
-stigma is learned throughout someone’s life and is difficult to break free from

8
Q

How does Hogben (Using Social Learning Theory to Explain Individual Differences in Human Sexuality) explain coercive sexual behavior?

A

-witnessing other aggressive behaviors (abusive parental relationships) can make people more likely to repeat the behaviors in their own relationships
-experiencing coercive sexual behavior makes someone more likely to repeat the behavior
-having sexually aggressive peers makes males more likely be aggressive in their relationships

9
Q

What are some limitations and unique qualities expressed in Hogben (Using Social Learning Theory to Explain Individual Differences in Human Sexuality) ?

A

-male coercive behavior is more commonly studied than female
-can manipulate social learning easily (ex: changing aggression levels and seeing how people act afterward), but can’t measure exactly what is causing the change in behavior and prove that it’s because of the variable they changed or something else
-hard to rule out other explanations
-unethical to manipulate certain variables (ex: sexual abuse)

10
Q

What were the main findings in the van Anders, Goldey, and Bell (Measurement of Testosterone in Human Sexuality Research: Methodological Considerations)? (ie. how do they explain human sexuality)

A

-T levels in a person can change during different social events over a person’s life, and can be learned over time
-using T to define a person’s sexual behavior may not be a consistent measure
-lower T levels in females (and higher levels in males) linked to:
-more frequent sexual activity (people in long term relationships)
-people in single relationships
-higher levels in people with:
-more complicated relationships (ex: cheating, polygamy
-levels can change throughout the seasons, through menstrual cycle (low during menstruation, rises during follicular phase)

11
Q

What are the pros, limitations, and concerns in van Anders, Goldey, and Bell (Measurement of Testosterone in Human Sexuality Research: Methodological Considerations)

A

-T research typically involves males, not females
-sexual minorities aren’t often included
-pros: when people self report their sexual feelings, it can help decrease stigma; testing can be done in different ways to accommodate certain people
-con: history of researchers using the data to “fix” homosexual behaviors

12
Q

What does the Dixson, Duncan, and Dixson (The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women’s Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age) article say about the preferences of people regarding breast size and areola pigmentation in terms of attractiveness, reproductive health, maturity, and maternal nurturing abilities, and why do they believe these views exist?

A

-larger breast size= more attractive, healthy, mature, and nurturing
-combined: the highest ratings were for large breasts with dark areola
-males may have evolved to select for women with these traits bc they’re supposed to develop during puberty, signifying a woman “more capable” of reproducing

13
Q

What are the issues with the findings in Dixson, Duncan, and Dixson (The Role of Breast Size and Areolar Pigmentation in Perceptions of Women’s Sexual Attractiveness, Reproductive Health, Sexual Maturity, Maternal Nurturing Abilities, and Age), and what does this show about sexuality?

A

-a female’s body is only seen for the reproduction capabilities, and males don’t account for differences in bodies, they just assume that one type is the best
-even though larger breasts and dark areola may not have any scientific benefits, the traits are still seen as favorable
-may be some limitations with using computer generated images, as these images can be rated higher by men and they may see the images as new and untouched

14
Q

What are the main findings of Lever, Frederick, and Peplau (Does Size Matter? Men’s and Women’s Views on Penis Size Across the Lifespan), and how do these findings relate to sexuality?

A

-a little over half of the males were satisfied with their size, and the majority of those who were not wished that their penis size was larger
-men who were dissatisfied with their size were less likely to undress in front of partner, had lower body image and self-attractiveness ratings, and were usually shorter and heavier
-men who were satisfied were usually taller and thinner, and had better body image
-most women were satisfied with their partner’s size, even though many males were not
-penis size is much more important to males than it is for their partners
-modern media depicts unrealistic penis sizes and may cause men to believe that’s normal

15
Q

How does the Séguin, Rodrigue, & Lavigne (Consuming Ecstasy: Representations of Male and Female Orgasm in Mainstream Pornography) show the sex differences in orgasm and sex through pornography, and what does this imply about sexuality?

A

-males: most frequently during self-stimulation, faces usually not shown on camera, ejaculation was indicator of orgasm
-females: during penetration, used exaggerated facial and vocal cues as indicator
-females need partner to have pleasurable sex, and it’s easier for males to have an orgasm
-most females actually can’t orgasm through penetration, and clitoral stimulation is more effective
-puts more pressure on a female’s partner to know how to give her pleasure, and media doesn’t show the proper ways to do it
-makes women feel like they have to perform during sex, even if it isn’t giving them pleasure

16
Q

What are some of the strengths and limitations of the Séguin, Rodrigue, & Lavigne (Consuming Ecstasy: Representations of Male and Female Orgasm in Mainstream Pornography) article?

A

-pros: explores male and female orgasm and takes physiological research of orgasm indicators into account
-cons: a “normal sexual response” is different for everyone and is dictated by culture, and can change over time; the majority of people in the videos were white, and the videos were targeted towards a heterosexual male audience, so orgasm and sex may be represented differently if the videos target other audiences

17
Q

What were the findings of the Busby et al. (Challenging the Standard Model of Sexual Response: Evidence of a Variable Male Sexual Response Cycle) and how do these relate to porn?

A

-desire levels usually match arousal levels
-males with high desire had high arousal in most recent sexual experience
-similar pattern in females
-males have less arousal at the end of sex than women do
-sexual experiences don’t look the same for all males, and having high arousal doesn’t always mean good sex
-males depicted in porn as having long sexual encounters and getting satisfaction through multiple orgasms, even though most men with high arousal didn’t have the longest durations of sex
-males always expected to last long, but this isn’t possible or enjoyable for everyone

18
Q

What were some limitations and strengths shown in the Busby et al. (Challenging the Standard Model of Sexual Response: Evidence of a Variable Male Sexual Response Cycle) article?

A

-limits: sample wasn’t very diverse, didn’t include different racial/ethnic or sexual minority groups; only asked about most recent experiences, and memory might not have been clear, experiences may be different over time
-pros: many differences across variables show a lot of differences (proving that the experience is different for everyone), some diversity in relationship status, education, orientation

19
Q

What are some implications about sex differences in orgasm difficulties as stated in the Dienberg et al. (Women’s Orgasm and Its Relationship with Sexual Satisfaction and Well‐being)?

A

-males: seen as more important to orgasm in order to ejaculate (and reproduce), and believed it’s more important for males to have a good sexual experience so they can orgasm
-females: seen as more complicated and less important as it doesn’t lead to anything for reproduction, some people believe females don’t need to orgasm and shouldn’t be worried if they can’t

20
Q

What are some of the benefits regarding sexual pleasure, satisfaction, and desire for woman’s orgasm, as stated in the Dienberg et al. (Women’s Orgasm and Its Relationship with Sexual Satisfaction and Well‐being) article?

A

-greater amount of pleasure, shows that the female is enjoying the experience
-better satisfaction in a female’s relationship with their partner, suggesting that better communication and a stronger relationship can occur between the two
-increases the female’s desire for sex, makes them more likely to engage again
-may be more likely to occur in queer contexts/ using different methods

21
Q

What were the main findings of the Dienberg et al. (Does Clitoral Knowledge Translate into Orgasm? The Interplay Between Clitoral Knowledge, Gendered Sexual Scripts, and Orgasm Experience) article, and what do these say about sex?

A

-a higher amount of clitoral knowledge was associated with more orgasms and pleasure during masturbation, but not partnered sex
-more clitoral knowledge was associated with females with an upper level degree
-males with more clitoral knowledge had less orgasms
-partners may be more focused on giving the female pleasure and not know how to pleasure both at the same time
-females may also be less likely to speak up about their knowledge during sex due to societal norms, ad even if they have a high level of knowledge, they might not be listened to and given what they desire

22
Q

What were the limitations of the Dienberg et al. (Does Clitoral Knowledge Translate into Orgasm? The Interplay Between Clitoral Knowledge, Gendered Sexual Scripts, and Orgasm Experience) article?

A

-little diversity in orientations
-other factors (ex: politics, religion) may go into someone having lots or little clitoral knowledge

23
Q

What is the psychoanalytic theory, and who is the founder?

A

-Freud
-behavior is driven by positively by libido and negatively by Thanatos
-we do things that make us feel good, avoid what makes us feel bad

24
Q

What are the id, ego, and superego?

A

-id: impulse, no morality
-ego: conscious, morals, driven by culture
-superego: negotiator between two

25
Q

What is psychosexual development and what theory is it part of?

A

-stages of discovery of different zones of pleasure in the body, develops at different ages and life events
-people can get stuck at certain stages
-psychoanalytic theory

26
Q

What do levels of penis envy suggest

A

greater=more interest in sex

27
Q

What is the cognitive behavioral theory consist of and who was a founder? How does this relate to sexuality?

A

-Pavlov
-conditioning
-may explain fetish development

28
Q

classical conditioning and relation to sexuality

A

classical conditioning: bell=salivation, we have innate behaviors that make the result happen
-touching genitals leads to arousal, and non-sexual trigger paired with touching then leads to arousal

29
Q

operant conditioning and sexuality

A

-reinforcement or punishment: can lead to more or less frequent Bx
-sexual dysfunction leads to shame, which can cause less desire to engage in Bx
-positive partnered experiences leads to emotional connection, which causes want to engage
-aversive conditioning can’t always change bad behaviors

30
Q

social learning theories and examples

A

-behaviors acquired through observation of others’ activities and outcome
-ex: if someone gets popular from being sexually active, then others will want to do that
-ex: porn doesn’t always depict real life and appropriateness, but may be viewed as normal Bx
-seeing others not use protection may lead to risky sexual behaviors

31
Q

personality theories

A

-big 5 (openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism) may lead to a pattern of behavior
-erotophilia/ erotophobia: people like or dislike stress
-some people may be dopamine and sensation seeking

32
Q

sociosexuality

A

willingness to engage in sex without commitment or emotional connection
-may be caused by the dark tetrad

33
Q

evolutionary theories of sexuality

A

ppl have inherent motivation to produce as many offspring as possible, leads to sexual behaviors and partner selection

34
Q

sexual strategies theory and its problems

A

approach to mating based on parental investment
-women select partners who will stick around and can provide
-men are less selective and desire a greater number of young, attractive partners
-only applies to heterosexuality, can’t explain casual sex

35
Q

biopsychosocial perspective

A

psych causes or drives sexual behaviors and is a product of sexual behavior

36
Q

history of sexology overview

A

1st-case studies by Freud and others
2nd-experiments and lab work
-during times of negative attitudes to discussions of sex
-researchers risked losing careers and had no funding
-participants too embarrassed to participate
-led to secretive, unethical research
3rd- 1994: national survey of sexual behavior in response to HIV concerns

37
Q

Kinsey research

A

-taught course on marriage
-later traveled to interview thousands of people about their sex lives
-published books that caused controversy and scandal
-wanted to understand sexual stimuli
-filmed various sexual activities

38
Q

Masters and Johnson research

A

-did early lab research
-later interviewed sex workers, filmed sexual activity, made sex toy with camera to observe changes in vagina during arousal and orgasm
-published research that was called pornographic

39
Q

different ways to study sexuality

A

-surveys: can be biased or dishonest
-direct observation: penile strain gauge to measure changes during sex, vaginal photoplethysmography to measure blood pressure changes, thermal imaging, fMRI
-case studies
-experimental methods (cortisol, testosterone)

40
Q

what is the most effective way to study sexuality

A

a combo of different measures

41
Q

Humphreys’ Tearoom Trade Study

A

-why are some men motivated to have anonymous sexual encounters with other men in public restrooms?
-people put on lookout in restrooms, recorded license plate #s, showed up to their homes later and interviewed for “unrelated” study
-found more than half of men were married to women
-published results led to decrease in policy investigating and prosecuting tearoom sex

42
Q

current problems and views of physiology and sexuality

A

-lack of info prevents knowledge of what is and isn’t normal
-can impact view of health, anxiety and body image, sexual dysfunction, relationship problems, sexual satisfaction of self and others
-common to discuss in sex therapy for dysfunction and satisfaction issues, but not really anywhere else

43
Q

how are male reproductive parts shown through history and culture?

A

-art, sculpture
-used in language and slang
-science: most people know more about female
-signs of power

44
Q

fascinum

A

sig of prestige for Roman boys, wore tiny replica of erect penis

45
Q

physiology of penis

A

-root (base), shaft (bulk), glans (end)
-variety in pubic hair, curvature, length
-some potential size trends based on race, but not significantly different

46
Q

sperm displacement theory

A

humans don’t need a bone in the penis, the glans suctions the sperm in

47
Q

median length and circumference of penis

A

length: 5.2 - 3.6
circumference: 3.7- 4.6

48
Q

circumcision psych

A

-removal of foreskin
-pros myths: reduce risk of UTIs and STIs, inc pleasure
-cons myths: destroys nerve endings
-argued as genital mutilation, consent difficulties

49
Q

phimosis

A

condition where foreskin is too tight, can be potentially treated with circumcision

50
Q

scrotum

A

-holds testicles
-often asymmetrical, left hanging lower than right bc of spermatic cord
-elevates with excitement

51
Q

penis shaft

A

-three long cylinders, fill with blood during erection

52
Q

root of penis

A

-musculature ejects semen in ejaculation
-can be strengthened with kegels
-sex therapy
-assuming men can control ejaculate makes those who don’t seem weak

53
Q

testes + sperm travel

A

-produce sex hormones and sperm after spermache, stored until maturity in epididymis
-larger often increases testicular cancer risk
-sperm transported to prostate through vas deferens, then mix with secretions to make semen, and sperm can then move on own
-pre-ejaculate released through arousal to alkalinize urethra, allowing sperm travel (can still cause pregnancy)

54
Q

semen

A

-released through ejaculation
-average volume: 2 mL
-longer activity = more semen
-varies between males

55
Q

semen psych

A

-men who see other males with females in sexual activity may see them as competition and produce more semen
-may be due to evolution

56
Q

penis size

A

-more worrying for males than their partners due to porn depictions
-surgery, natural male enhancement, stretching devices, vacuum pumps all very risky measures to inc size
-only 2.5% of men have penises larger than 6.9” when erect
-men with larger penises report better body image, psychosocial adjustment, are more narcissistic
-most partners prefer smaller and are satisfied with size

57
Q

scrotum size

A

-larger seen as more masculine
-self injecting saline for size and pleasure
-scrotum reduction surgery
-myth: size relates to fertility

58
Q

Dhat syndrome

A

anxiety from fear of semen loss
-not as prominent in US bc concerns less about reproductivity

59
Q

Koro syndrome

A

fear of penis shrinking and retracting inside body

60
Q

vulva

A

-external area
-historically seen as source of life, fertility

61
Q

pudendum

A

Latin “to be ashamed”
-relates to vulva concerns in females

62
Q

mons pubis

A

-layer of fatty tissue with lots of nerve endings
-monsplasty: liposuction to remove protective fat

63
Q

labia

A

-minora and majora
-minora: no hair follicles, very responsive to stimulation
-deepens in color when aroused due to blood flow
-labial reduction surgery

64
Q

clitoral hood

A

female foreskin

65
Q

clitoris

A

-contains glans, shaft, crura
-only “reproductive” part that provides no reproductive use
-contains more nerve endings than a penis
-female genital cutting

66
Q

hymen

A

-many different types, covers opening to vagina
-no reproductive function, not a way to see virginity (can be broken before sexual experience, or not born with one)
-hymenoplasty: “revirginization”, take tissue from another part of the body and remake a hymen
-was used for older females to “reduce” aging

67
Q

pelvic floor muscles

A

-involuntarily contract during orgasm
-can be strengthened with kegels

68
Q

g-spot

A

-depends on the orientation of the clitoris, may or may not be present in different people, some people may never find it
-less than 3’ inside vagina front fall
-reported to result in intense orgasm and ejaculation

68
Q

vagina

A

-expands in size and changes shape during intercourse
-2.8-3.1 -> 4.3-4.7
-few nerve endings beyond the opening of the vagina

69
Q

female ejaculation

A

-fluid originates in bladder, consistency depends on person, doesn’t happen for everyone
-depicted unrealistically in porn

70
Q

uterus

A

-houses fertilized egg

71
Q

cervix

A

-opens during menstrual cycle, needs to be open for sperm to travel and pregnancy to occur
-mucus layer
-contains nerves, can be stimulated and used for sexual pressure

72
Q

fallopian tubes

A

carries eggs from ovaries to uterus

73
Q

ovaries

A

house egg during maturation and makes sex hormones, produce and releases eggs

74
Q

menstrual cycle psych (disorders)

A

-PMDD: more mental health changes than PMS
-PMS: experienced by 80-90% of females, still called a syndrome due to taboo

75
Q

breasts

A

-not technically sexual anatomy
-part of genital sexual cortex (in both males and females)
-stimulation may activate unique parts of the brain
-estimated 30% of women report satisfaction with chest
(too droopy, small, large)
-breast augmentation surgery rates are increasing)
-only 56% of males report being satisfied with partner’s size and shape

76
Q

vulva and vagina

A

-labia too large or asymmetrical
-vagina too large or too loose -> belief that more sexual experiences/ partners increase it
-can naturally change shape during childbirth and age very slightly
-“designer vaginas”: constant procedures being marketed to help with orgasm

77
Q

vaginal cosmetic procedures

A

-vaginal rejuvenation surgery
-g-spot amplification: inject collagen to “help” lack of ability to orgasm during intercourse
-o-shot: inject plasma from other part of body to increase cell release (not effective)

78
Q

labiaplasty example

A

-82% of people satisfied with result, but it had no effect on relationship satisfaction, confidence, distress, etc
-increased levels of distress and having a partner pre-op related to lower satisfaction
-little to no effects worth the money

79
Q

penile augmentation example

A

-47% reported increase in self confidence, 42% saw inc in sexual pleasure for them or partner
-sig dec in body dysmorphia and size discrepancies
-non-significant dec in psych distress
-inc in self esteem and body image

80
Q

difference in male and female cosmetic procedures

A

most male procedures have FDA approval, while most female procedures don’t

81
Q

how does brain control arousal

A

-consciously and unconsciously
-can change due to depression, distraction, stress (all can inc or dec it)
-some people have different things and thresholds that inc arousal

82
Q

limbic system and arousal

A

-“pleasure center”
-can trigger sexual arousal without trying/ knowing
-amygdala and hypothalamus activate when exposed to erotic films

83
Q

Kluver Bucy syndrome

A

hyper sexuality, uncontrolled sexual arousal
-difficult to reach orgasm
-usually associated with epilepsy

84
Q

cerebral cortex

A

visual/ visualized sexual fantasy

85
Q

neurotransmitters

A

-serotonin: reduces arousal and inhibits orgasm
-dopamine: inc positive feelings, inc arousal in sex
-SSRIs can lower levels of arousal but delay orgasm, may be used by some to last longer

86
Q

sensory input effect on arousal

A

-certain music can cause someone to be aroused/ associate it with sex
-blindfold to help with body image issues and confidence
-hot and cold sensations

87
Q

touch and arousal

A

-lighter vs more aggressive touch

88
Q

primary erogenous zones

A

genitals, perineum, nipples, lips, inner thighs

89
Q

secondary erogenous zones

A

not naturally arousing, but can take on sexual significance due to conditioning
-can help those with physical disabilities (ex: genital sensory disturbance)
-mimic the actions on different body parts to lead to arousal

90
Q

sight and arousal

A

cultural and societal norms can shape individual preferences and dictate what’s arousing or not
-influenced by learning and experiences
-men state to show more arousal looking at pornographic clips, but females show more MRI activity
-heterosexual men show strong genital arousal when watching porn with women, while heterosexual women show strong arousal in response to lesbian, gay men, and heterosexual porn

91
Q

visual impairment and arousal

A

can heighten other senses

92
Q

sex blindness

A

other bodily issues can be worsened with sex (and cause blindness)

93
Q

sexual double standard about arousal

A

males more likely to talk about arousal (social norms)
-male arousal more easier to detect and interpret

94
Q

genital responsiveness as a learned behavior

A

women are taught was sex objects, and view other women as sex objects

95
Q

preparation hypothesis

A

women have evolved to not recognize arousal and are genitally responsive to all sexual cues to avoid injury in sexual scenarios

96
Q

conscious contributions of smell to arousal

A

-determined by prior learning experiences (conditioning) and cultural standards
-cologne/ perfume associated with attraction to a partner and sex
-cultures that don’t use soap to cover up scents may believe in ‘smell of sex’
-cultures that use soap, etc. may be turned off by more natural scents
-many pH balancing products on the market for women, but not men

97
Q

unconscious contributions of smell and arousal

A

-pheromones

98
Q

pheromones

A

-produced by apocrine glands in armpits and pubic region
-smelled by vomeronasal (Jacobsen’s) organ and olfactory system (much smaller in humans than other mammals bc not as important for mate finding)
-smell preference may match sexual orientation

99
Q

menstrual synchrony

A

due to probability, not pheromones

100
Q

synthetic pheromones

A

males may wear more females; placebo effect

101
Q

isolated congenital anosmia

A

people born without a sense of smell
-report having fewer sexual partners as adults
-could be due to no pheromone awareness, or less secure bc they can’t smell their own body odor/ breath

102
Q

hearing and arousal

A

-social learning and classical conditioning of certain smells, through experience or porn
-female vocalizations can facilitate male orgasm and tend to be more vocal during sex
-males with hearing loss report more erectile difficulties

103
Q

taste and arousal

A

-conditioning to enjoy taste of natural body secretions, flavored lubes, condoms, etc
-arousal with food
-oxytocin levels (love, caring hormone) inc when tasting partner

104
Q

testosterone

A

-in both males and females
-important in prenatal development
-deficit= diminish in sexual desire and arousal
-chemical castration: prevent testosterone from being made in child sex abusers
-high T does not mean high libido

105
Q

hypogonadism and oophorectomy

A

can dec seal interest and arousal

106
Q

estrogen

A

-in both females and males
-usually overlooked in therapies
-estrogen only therapies can inc sexual desire and arousal

107
Q

most effective hormone therapy

A

testosterone paired with estrogen

108
Q

oxytocin and orgasm

A

in M and F, spikes after arousal, orgasm, and ejaculation

109
Q

aphrodiasiacs

A

-foods that have something visually related to sex (ex: oysters)
-alcohol: inc dopamine in low amounts
-weed may have various effects
-dif foods considered aphrodisiacs depending on culture
-foods that alter dopamine have the largest effects

110
Q

difference in cultures who highly value sex vs those who don’t

A

more procedures, products, etc designed to get back lost desire and arousal

111
Q

Masters and Johnson biological model of orgasm

A

-is “similar and predictable” for everyone
1-excitement: based on vasocongestion (blood flow) and myotonia (muscle response) levels
2-plateau: more pronounced excitement
-edging: believed to help with a more positive orgasm experience
3-orgasm
4-resolution: genitals return to non-aroused state

112
Q

orgasm rates from highest to lowest

A

heterosexual men -> gay men -> bisexual males -> lesbian females -> bisexual females -> heterosexual females

113
Q

differences in orgasm feelings

A

described pretty similarly in males and females

114
Q

male theories of orgasm

A

needs to happen for reproduction

115
Q

female theories of orgasm

A

no reproductive value

116
Q

sperm retention theory

A

sperm gets trapped when tense, so orgasm can help keep in sperm so that when you sleep (fully relaxed) it doesn’t flow out

117
Q

mate choice hypothesis

A

females only organs when they’re with someone with good genes so the sperm doesn’t flow out

118
Q

sex differentiation female orgasm hypothesis

A

orgasm is leftover from development and is from testosterone

119
Q

differences in male and female orgasm

A

-time (10-20 sec vs 30-60 sec)
-type of orgasm (vaginal, clitoral, blended, anal, g-spot, imagery, nipple, cervical, exercise induced) (penis, prostate)
-females think of orgasm as “good sex” or “not as good sex”
-multiple orgasms (43% vs 8%)

120
Q

male retention strategy

A

females fake an orgasm to keep their male partner

121
Q

differences in faking an orgasm

A

-males: may be intoxicated, tired, taking too long
-females: want to improve their partner’s self esteem or avoid hurt feelings
-attachment styles ay have varying effects

122
Q

triphasic model of sexual response

A

psychological phase: 1-sexual desire (psychological in nature: stress, body image, emotions, etc)
physiological phases: 2- excitement
3-orgasm
-arousal is based on a person’s wants
-sexual problems can occur at any phase

123
Q

erotic stimulation pathway theory

A

-seduction -> sensations -> surrender ->reflection (what goes through head right after orgasm)
-brain can override any physiological cues
-focuses on psych and cognitive factors