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1

Roles and Responsibilities of Athletic Trainers

Injury/illness prevention and wellness protection

Clinical evaluation and diagnosis

Immediate and emergency care

Treatment and rehabilitation

Organizational and professional health and well-being.

2

NATA Code of Ethics

Members shall respect the rights, welfare and dignity of all.

Members shall comply with the laws and regulations governing the practice of athletic training.

Members shall maintain and promote high standards in their provision of services.

Members shall not engage in conduct that could be construed as a conflict of interest or that reflects negatively on the profession.

3

Trauma

A physical injury or wound that is produced by and external or internal force.

4

Load

An external force acting on tissues that causes internal reactions within the tissues.

5

Stiffness

The relative ability of a tissue to resist a particular load. The greater the stiffness, the greater the magnitude of load it can withstand.

6

Stress

The internal resistance of the tissues to an external load is called a stress.

7

Strain

Extent of deformation of tissue under loading.

8

Deformation

Change in shape of a tissue.

9

Elasticity

A property that allows a tissue to return to normal following deformation.

10

Yield Point

The yield point is the elastic limit of a tissue.

11

Plastic

Plastic is the deformation of tissue that exist after the load is removed. (permanent changes)

12

Creep

Deformation of tissue that occurs with application of a constant load over time.

13

Mechanical Failure

Exceeding the ability to withstand stress and strain, causing tissue to break down.

14

Tissue Loading Types

1. Compression
2. Tension
3. Shearing
4. Bending
5. Torsion

15

Compression

Compression is produced by external loads applied toward one another on opposite surfaces in opposite directions.

16

Tension

(opposite of compression)
Tension is the force that pulls or stretches tissue. The structure elongates and tensile stress and strain results.

17

Shearing

Shearing occurs when equal but not directly opposite loads are applied to opposing surfaces, forcing those surfaces to move in parallel directions relative to one another.

18

Bending

Bending can occur in one of the following ways:

1. When two forces pairs act at opposite ends of a structure (4-point)

2. When three forces cause bending

3. When an already bowed structure is axially loaded.

19

Torision

Torsion loads caused by twisting in opposite directions fro the opposite ends of a structure cause shear stress over the entire cross section of that structure.

20

Traumatic

(Acute) Sudden

21

Overuse

(Chronic) Overtime, due to repetitive movements and poor biomechanics.

22

Musculotendinous Unit Injuries

The musculotendonuos unit consist of the muscle, the tendon, and the fascia that surrounds the muscle.

High incidence in athletic.
Anatomical Characteristics
-irritability/excitability
-contractility
-Conductivity
-Elasticity

23

Types of Muscle

1. Cardiac
2. Smooth
3. Striated (Skeletal)

24

Muscle Strains

A stretch, tear, or rip in the muscle or its tendon.

Pathologically, a strain is very similar to a contusion or sprain with capillary or blood vessel hemorrhage.

Time required for healing may be lengthy

Often involves large, force-producing muscles.

Treatment and recovery may take 6-8 Weeks depending on severity.

Return to play too soon could result in re-injury.

25

Muscle Strain Grade I

Grade I - some fibers have been stretched or actually torn resulting in tenderness and pain on active ROM, movement may be painful but full range is present

26

Muscle Strain Grade II

A number of fibers have been torn and active contraction is painful, usually a depression or divot is palpable, some swelling and discoloration result, but may not occur immediately. Usually patient hears a popping sound.

27

Muscle Strain Grade III

A complete rupture of muscle or musculotendinous junction. There is significant impairment to or perhaps total loss of movement. Initially there is a great deal of pain that diminishes due to nerve damage.

28

Muscle Cramps

Painful and involuntary skeletal muscle contraction.
Occurs in well-developed individuals when muscle is in a shortened position.

29

Muscle Gaurding

A muscle contraction in response to pain.

Following injury, the muscles that surround the injured area contract to, in effect, splint that are, thus minimizing pain by limiting movement.

30

Muscle Spasm

A muscle spasm is a reflex reaction caused by trauma to the musculoskeletal system.

Clonic Spasm - involuntary muscle contraction characterized by alternate contraction and relaxation in rapid succession.

Tonic - Type of muscle contraction characterized by constant contraction that last for a period of time.