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1

Bacterial Infections

Staphylococcus
-Bacteria that appearsin clumps on skin and/or the upper respiratory tract.

Streptococcus
-Chain bacteria often associated with systemic disease and skin infections

Bacillus
-Spore forming, aerobic and occasionally mobile, and can cause systemic damage.

2

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

Strains of staphylococcus that are resistant to some antibiotics.
Often occurs in individuals that are already sick, hospitalized or have open wounds.
Easily contagious and transmitted via superficial abrasions and minor skin trauma.

Sx. Redness, swelling, tenderness. White fucking gross bubbles.

Management
Antibiotics provided intravenously
Treatment last several weeks
Always refer

BACTERIA

3

Impetigo Contagiosa

Caused by streptococci, S aureus or a combination of these bacteria.
Its is spread through close contact.

Sx. Mild itching and soreness followed by eruption of small vesicles and pustules that rupture and crust.
Generally develops in body folds that are subject to friction.

BACTERIA

4

Furuncles

Infection of a hair follicle that results in pustule formation.
Generally the result of a staph infection.
Pain and tenderness increase with pressure.
Most will mature and rupture.

Management
Care involves protection from additional irritation.
Refer
Keep them away from contact while boil is draining

BACTERIA

5

Carbuncles

Sx. Larger and deeper than furuncles and has several opening in the skin.
May produce a fever and elevation of WBC count.
Starts hard and red and over a few days emerges into a lesion that discharges yellowish pus.

Management
Surgical drainage combined with the administration of antibiotics.
Warm compress is applied to promote circulation.

6

Folliculitis

inflammation of a hair follicle
Caused by infectious or non-infectious agents

Management
Management is much like impetigo.
Moist heat is used to increase circulation
Antibiotics can also be used depending on the condition.

7

Hidradentis Suppurativa

Inflammation of the hair follicle resulting in secondary blockage of the apocrine gland.
Chronic inflammatory condition of sweat glands.
Cause is unknown.

8

Acne Vulgaris

Inflammatory disease of the hair follicle and the sebaceous glands.
Hormones can affect

9

Paronychia and Onychia

Caused by staph, strep and/or fungal organisms.

Sx. Rapid onset; painful with bright red swelling of proximal and lateral fold of the nail.
Accumulation of purulent material within the nail fold.

Management
Soak in Epsom salts, warm water solution up to 3 times a day.
Topical antibiotic
Systemic Antibiotic
Drainage, incision.

10

Paronychia

infection involving the lateral nail fold.

11

Onychia

Infection involving the nail bed,

12

Tetanus Bacillus Infection

BACTERIA

Acute infection of the CNS and muscles.
Caused by tetanus Bacillus

Sx. Stiffness of the jaw and muscles of the neck. Muscles of facial expression become contorted and painful.
Fever

Management
Hospitalization/ICU
Immunization

13

Fungal Infections

Group of organisms that include yeast and mold.
grows best in unsanitary conditions with warmth, moisture and stratum corneum.

14

Ringworm

FUNGAL
Raised border.

15

Tinea Capitis

Tinea of the scalp.
Sx. begins as a small papule that spreads peripherally.
Appears as small grayish scales resulting in scattered balding.
Easily spread through close physical contact.

Management
Topical creams and shampoos are ineffective in treating fungus in hair shaft.
Systemic antifungal agents are replacing older agents due to increased resistance
Some topical agents are used in conjunction

FUNGUS

16

Tinea Corporis

FUNGAL
Sx. extremities and trunk.
Itchy red-brown scaling plaque that expands peripherally.

Management
Topical antifungal cream

FUNGUS

17

Lamisil and Tinactin

Topical anti-fungal creams.
The athlete must finish the whole course of treatment.
Cover and protect
Refer if not resolving.

18

Tinea Unguium/Onychomycosis

FUNGAL
Fungal infection of the nail. The nail becomes thick, brittle and separated from its bed.

Management
Some topical anti-fungal agents have prove to be useful.
Systemic meds are the most effective.
Surgical removal of the nail may be necessary.

19

Tinea Cruris

FUNGAL
Tinea of the Groin
Symmetric re-brown scaling plaque with snake like border.

Sx. Mild to moderate itching
May progress to secondary bacterial infection

Management
Responds to non-percription medications

20

Tinea Pedis

FUNGAL
Sx. Extreme itching on soles of feet, between and on top of the toes.
Appears as dry, scaling patch of inflammatory, scaling red palpules forming larger plaques.
May develop secondary infection from itching and bacteria.

Management
Topical anti-fungal agents and good foot hygiene.

21

Candidiasis

FUNGAL
Infections within body folds
Beefy red patches with possible satellite pustules.
White macerated border may surround the red area, deep fissures may develop at skin creases.

22

Tinea Versicolor

FUNGAL
Caused by yeast
Appears commonly in area in which sebaceous glands actively secrete body oils.
Usually asymptomatic

Managements
Topical creams and Shampoos

23

Viral Infections

Ultamicroscopic organisms that require host cells to compete their life cycle.

24

Herpes Simplex Labialis, Gladiatorum and Zoster

VIRUS
Type 1 can be anywhere
Type 2 are only on the gentials

Highly Contagious and usually transmitted directly through a lesion in the skin or mucous membrane.

Resides in sensory nerve neurilemmal sheath following initial outbreak.

Recurrent attacks stimulated by sunlight, emotional disturbances, illness, fatigue or infection.

Sx. Early indication = tingling or hypersensitivity in an infected area 24 hours prior to appearance of lesions.
local swelling followed by outbreak of vesicles.
Patients may feel ill w/ headache, sore-throat, swollen lymph glands and pain in area of lesions.
Vescilces generally rupture 1-3 days spilling serious material
Heal in generally 10-14 days
The athlete should be disqualified from contact during an outbreak.

Management
Can only reduce recurrance of outbreaks

25

Verruca Virus and Warts

Verruca plana (flat wart), verruca plantaris (plantar wart) and condyloma accuminatum (venereal wart)

Wart enters through lesion in skin.

26

Verruca Plana (Common Wart)

Sx. Small, round, elevated lesion with rough dry surfaces.
Painful if pressure is applied.
May be subject to secondary infection.

Management
Electrocautery, topical salicylic acid or liquid nitrogen.

27

Verruca Plantaris (Plantar Warts)

Spread through papilloma Virus

Sx. Sole of foot, or adjacent to areas o abnormal weight bearing
Areas of excessive epidermal thickening
discomfort, point tenderness
Hemorrhagic puncta

Management
In general, protect and prevent spreading
Shave callus and apply keratolytic agent
Can be removed by freezing or electrodessication.

28

Molluscum Contagiosum

Poxvirus infection
Contagious with direct body contact

Sx. small, flesh or red colored, smooth-domed papules

Management
Physican reffereal
Removed with a counterirritant, surgically or cryosurgery.

29

Allergic, Thermal and Chemical Skin Reactions

Allergens may be food, drugs, clothing, dust, pollens, plants, animals, heat, cold, dyes, or light.

Reddening and swelling of tissue, hives, burning, and/or itching.

ATC must:
Recognize gross signs of allergic responses.
be prepared to remove allergens
Treat topically or systemically

30

Contact Dermatitis

Plants, poison ivy, poison oak, sumac, ragweed, primrose
Topical medications
Chemical found in fragrences, soaps and detergents
Pre-wrap, tuf skin, tape or ice and heat.

Sx. Redness, swelling, formation of vesticles that ooze fluid and form crust, constant itching.
Can change to lichenified papules and plaques

Management
Avoid Allergen
Compresses or soaks, topical corticosteroids.