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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (42):
1

amphora

a two handled jar with a narrow neck that was used in ancient times to store or carry wine or oils

2

architrave

the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns. It is an architectural element in Classical architecture.

3

bilingual pot

included the older black-figure style of decoration on one side of the pot and the newer red-figure style on the other side. Style was created with uncertainty if new people would accept the new style of pottery.

4

black-figure

Figures and ornaments were painted on the body of the vessel using shapes and colors reminiscent of silhouettes. Delicate contours were incised into the paint before firing, and details could be reinforced and highlighted with opaque colors, usually white and red.

5

canon of proportions

Repeatable statements of power. Body is proportionate in an artificial way. Rule of mathematical proportions of the human body that was used for measurements of the human body in sculpturing. Canon was based on a ratio of units and the length of various body parts

6

capital

forms the topmost member of a column (or a pilaster). It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface.

7

caryatid

is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head

8

cella

is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture

9

chimaera

a monstrous fire-breathing hybrid creature of Lycia in Asia Minor, composed of the parts of more than one animal. Usually depicted as a lion, with the head of a goat arising from its back, and a tail that might end with a snake's head

10

corbelled vaulting

is an arch-like construction method that uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge

11

Dorians

no fucking clue

12

entablature

a horizontal, continuous lintel on a classical building supported by columns or a wall, comprising the architrave, frieze, and cornice.

13

entasis

a slight convex curve in the shaft of a column, introduced to correct the visual illusion of concavity produced by a straight shaft.

14

fluting

narrow channels running up and down the columns. it made the columns look skinnier and taller and more elegant. Fluting the columns also gave them more of a feeling of rhythm, which architects working in ancient Greece thought was an important aspect of a temple.

15

foreshortening

the distortion that is seen by the eye when an object or figure is viewed at a distance or at an unusual angle. In a photograph of a recumbent figure positioned so that the feet are nearest the camera, for instance, the feet will seem unnaturally large and those body parts at a distance, such as the head, unnaturally small

16

frieze

the middle of the three main divisions of an entablature (section resting on the capital). The frieze is above the architrave and below the cornice (in a position that could be quite difficult to view). The term also refers to any long, narrow, horizontal panel or band used for decorative purposes—e.g., on pottery, on the walls of a room, or on the exterior walls of buildings.

17

gorgon

The Gorgons were three monsters in Greek mythology, daughters of Echidna and Typhon, the mother and father of all monsters respectively, Their names were Stheno, Euryale, and the most famous of them, Medusa.

18

griffin

was a beast with the head and wings of an eagle and the body of a lion. Symbol of divine power and guardian of the divine.

19

Herakles

(or Hercules) is best known as the strongest of all mortals, and even stronger than many gods. He was the deciding factor in the triumphant victory of the Olympians over the giants. He was the last mortal son of Zeus, and the only man born of a mortal woman to become a god upon his death.

20

hieratic scaling

Hieratic scale is a technical term given to describe how we assign importance to images by increasing their size in relation to others on the picture plane. This is especially prevalent when we look at religious artwork, but even children execute drawings using this type of scale to signify the most important members of their household.

21

high relief

relief sculpture is any work which projects from but which belongs to the wall, or other type of background surface, on which it is carved. Reliefs are traditionally classified according to how high the figures project from the background. A form of three-dimensional art

22

hoplites

was the most common type of heavily armed foot-soldier in ancient Greece from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE, and most ordinary citizens of Greek city-states with sufficient means were expected to equip and make themselves available for the role when necessary

23

Iliad

ancient poem by Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy (Ilium) by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles.

24

Ionians

skip

25

kore

refers to statues depicting female figures, always of a young age, which were created during the Archaic period (600 – 480 BCE) either as votive or commemorative statues. Korai statues are the female equivalent of Kouros. There are several distinct differences between the two, with the most significant one being the fact that Kouros statues were almost always portrayed in the nude, while Kore were always clothed.

26

kouros

one of the earliest marble statues of a human figure carved in Attica. The rigid stance, with the left leg forward and arms at the side, was derived from Egyptian art. The pose provided a clear, simple formula that was used by Greek sculptors throughout the sixth century B.C.

27

krater

is a large vase used to mix wine and water in Ancient Greece.

28

lost wax

lost-wax casting became the major technique for producing bronze statuary. The lost-wax casting of bronze is achieved in three different ways: solid lost-wax casting, hollow lost-wax casting by the direct process, and hollow lost-wax casting by the indirect process. The first method, which is also the earliest and simplest process, calls for a model fashioned in solid wax. This model is surrounded with clay and then heated in order to remove the wax and harden the clay. Next, the mold is inverted and molten metal poured into it. When the metal cools, the bronze-smith breaks open the clay model to reveal a solid bronze reproduction.

29

low relief

a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief. In the lowest reliefs the relative depth of the elements shown is completely distorted, and if seen from the side the image makes no sense, but from the front the small variations in depth register as a three-dimensional image. Other versions distort depth much less. It is a technique which requires less work, and is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modlling is required.

30

Odysseus

hero of Homer’s epic poem the Odyssey and one of the most frequently portrayed figures in Western literature. According to Homer, Odysseus was king of Ithaca. Captured Troy by means of the wooden horse and escaped the Cyclops by the belly of the sheep.

31

pediment

originally of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns. The tympanum, or triangular area within the pediment, was often decorated with relief sculpture depicting scenes from Greek and Roman mythology or allegorical figures.

32

peristyle

A peristyle is a courtyard with a covered walkway all the way around it, with columns holding up the ceiling so you can see out into the garden. Peri means "around" and style means "column", so a peristyle is a place with columns all the way around it. The earliest peristyle courtyards that we know of were in Greek houses, beginning around the Classical period.

33

phalanx

is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons. The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greek warfare

34

protome

A mythical creature revered for its protective powers, the griffin combined a feline body, an avian head, and tall, horse-like ears. They were a standard way of putting great wealth on display

35

red-figure

replaced the previously dominant style of black-figure vase painting within a few decades

36

registers

a vertical level in a work that consists of several levels, especially where the levels are clearly separated by lines

37

symposium

was a drinking party depicted on Greek pottery

38

telemon

a column in the form of a male figure, used to support an entablature. Also called: atlas

In the Iliad he was the father of Greek heroes Ajax the Great and Teucer the Archer by different mothers. Some accounts mention a third son of his, Trambelus.[1][2] He and Peleus were also close friends of Heracles, assisting him on his expeditions against the Amazons and against Troy

39

vertical hierarchy

statement of power. Technique of showing power and importance by placing one subject higher than the other

40

Euboian ovoid krater

-Has a lid
-subject matter is animals esp. horses because of knightly wealth and power. Pottery featured animals that were used in battle
-animal dominant
-elaborate arrangement
-heraldic composition: subjects face each other and are symmetrical; creates statement of power

41

Attic Dipylon Amphora

-subject matter people
-leaves space for scene with people

42

horses

-emphasized the rotundity, strength, and durability