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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (47)
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1

Endotoxin: Source

gram (-) bacteria

2

Endotoxin: Components

Polysacharide - O region - Bact specific

Core - acidic polysacharides

Lipid A Region - same throughout all bacteria

3

Endotoxemia: Causes

GIT disturbance, metritis/placentitis, pleuropneumonia, bact pleuritis +/- peritonitis, septicemia, wound infection

4

What happens to endotoxins once they enter the blood, if they came from the GIT?

bind to circulating LPS antibodies, removed by liver, bind to LBP

5

Endotoxemia: Responses

alteration of blood flow, inc. permeability, hypercoagulability, neutrophil adhesion, monocyte/macrophage activation, platelet adhesion

6

Endotoxemia: Phases of shock

hyperdynamic state

hypodynamic state

7

Hyperdynamic State: Effects

net vasoconstriction, normal CRT, strong pulse, injected MM, warm extremities (peripheral vasodilation)

8

Hypodynamic State: Effects

net vasodilation, congested MM, prolonged CRT, weak/thready pulse, cold extremities (peripheral vasoconstriction)

9

Endotoxemia: Hemogram

leukocytopenia, neutropenia, normal lymphocytes

10

Endotoxemia: Tx

remove the cause, cardio support, neutralize endotoxin (polymixin B), inhibit inflammatory response (flunixin)

11

Laminitis: Causes

SID, Endocrine, trauma

12

Laminitis: Sepsis - Inflammatory Theory

infiltration of leukocytes => inflammatory mediators

13

Laminitis: Sepsis - Vascular Theory

vasoconstriction => hypoxia/ischemia

14

Laminitis: Endocrine - Insulin Resistance

disrupts glucose metabolism and vascular function in lamellar epithelium

15

Laminitis: Gross Changes

rotational displacement, vertical displacement

16

Laminitis: Rotational Displacement

P3 rotates due to tensile force from the DDF

17

Laminitis: Vertical Displacement

P3 sinks distally due to shear force from weight bearing

18

Laminitis: Evaluation

stance/gait, signs of inflammation, digital pulse, palpate coronary band (sinking), hoof tester response (rotational), weight shifting

19

Laminitis: Stance/Gait

Front hooves affected - shifting weight back

All hooves affected - shits weight to the center

Gait - reluctant, walking on egg shells

20

Laminitis: Digital Pulse

bounding

21

Laminitis: Rad Evaluation

Rotation - P3 should be parallel w/ outer hoof wall Vertical - distance between coronary band and P2-P3 joint

22

Laminitis: Stages

developmental - no signs (at risk)

Acute - signs w/o mechanical displacement

Chronic - signs w/ mechanical displacement

23

Laminitis: Tx

treat underlying cause, local nitroglycerin, foot therapy, fentanyl patch

24

Laminitis: Foot Therapy

cryotherapy, inc. digital perfusion (low dose Ace), NSAIDs, support "shoes"

25

Laminitis: Radiographic Markers

dorsal hoof wall, tip of frog, coronary band

26

What are the energy pathways used by muscles?

Phosphocreatine pathway, anaerobic glycolysis, aerobic pathway

27

Muscle Fiber: Types

I, IIA, IIX

28

What kind of work do Type I fibers perform?

slow repetitive movements

29

What kind of work do Type IIA fibers perform?

prolonged powerful movements

30

What kind of work do Type IIX fibers perform?

short powerful movements