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- the simultaneous sharing and creating of meaning through human symbolic interaction


Communication competence

- the ability to take part in effective communication by
1) skills
2) understanding (why)
3) connection (speaker and audience)


Communication and our technological society

1) social media
2) social networks
3) communication and career development
4) communication and ethical behavior
5) communication and our multicultural diversity


Principles of Communication

1) communication is a process
2) communication is a system
3) communication is transactional (2 ways)
4) communication can be intentional or unintentional


**Essential Components of Communications

1) source/sender (encoding)
2) message
3) interference/noise
4) channel
5) receiver (decoding)
6) feedback
7) environment
8) context

(Harcombe ex wink ends up being taken as eyedrops?)


Types of Communication

1) Intrapersonal Communication
- understanding info within ones self (thinking)
2) Interpersonal Communication
a. Dyadic communication - btw 2 people (interview)
b. Small group
3) Public Communication
4) Mass Communication
5) communication via social media


7 Distinguishing factors from social media to face to face communication

1) interactivity
- the ability to communicate between groups and individuals through a comm tool
2) temporal structure
- the time it takes to receive and send messages
3) social cues
- verbal and nonverbal features of a message
4) replicability
- easy to record or redistribute past messages
5) storage
- face to face interactions are gone after
6) reach
- social media allows contact with people much further
7) mobility
- face to face is as mobile as walking


Misconceptions about communication

1) communication is a cure-all
2) quantity means quality
3) meaning is in the words we use
4) we have a natural ability to communicate
5) communication is reversible


Public speaking

- the art of oral communication with an audience


5 Techniques for finding a topic to public speak about

1) self-inventory
- lists of subjects u find interesting
2) brainstorm
3) reviewing the current media
4) engage listeners with social media
5) surf the web


*informative speech

- enhances the audiences knowledge and understanding by explaining what something is, how it works and why. Inform not biased.


*Persuasive Speech

- attempt to change the listeners belief attitude or behavior. Must present evidence and arguments. Difference between this and informative speeches is the action of audience as a result.


* entertainment speech

- provide enjoyment and amusement


*general purpose or overall goal of speeches

1) to inform
2) to persuade
3) to entertain


Specific purpose of a speech

- a single phrase that defines precisely what you intend to accomplish in your speech
- an EFFECTIVE sp identifies
1) the general purpose of the speech
2) the audience
3) the exact topic to be covered



- says exactly what is going to be discussed during the speech


*Audience analysis

- the collection and interpretation of data about characteristics, attitudes, values, and beliefs of an audience
- understanding the listeners point of view


*captive versus voluntary participants

1) Captive
- people who are required to hear the speech
2) voluntary
- want to hear the speech because of a particular interest or need


Demographic Analysis

- the collection of basic information to help the speaker relate to the audience
- age, gender, cultural or ethnic background, education, occupation, religion, geographical origins,group membership


Psychological Analysis

- collection of data on an audience members values, attitudes and beliefs
- size of audience, physical setting, knowledge level, attitudes and values related to the topic, attitudes related to the situation


Ways to learn about the audience

1) observation
2) questionnaires
3) survey interview
- Q&A session before the speech


*Research: Gathering information

1) The Internet
- make sure reliable and credible
-it needs:
an author, publishing body, currency and a purpose


Using research to support and clarify ideas

1) testimony
- opinions or conclusions of a witness
2) examples
- simple representative incident that clarifies a point
3) definitions
- clarification of a term
4) Statistics
- numerical data that interpret circumstances


Cite sources

1) orally (author, date, source)
2) in the text of the outline
3) in the APA bibliography


Organizing speech

- arranging the speech into its parts into a systematic and meaningful whole
- 3 parts: intro, body and conclusion


Main points

- are the principal subdivisions of a speech
- are broad statements that help organize your main particulars found through research


Presenting the main points

1) be precise
2) use vivid language
3) show relevance
4) creative parallel structure


Time sequence or chronological pattern

- presentation begins at a particular point in time and continues either forward or backwards


Spatial pattern

- content of a speech is organized according to relationships in space


Topical pattern

- the main topic is divided into a series of subtopics


Mind mapping

- an organizational strategy in which you visually map out how various ideas connect


Narrative or storytelling

- using a report of ideas and situations, as in a story but without the traditional story components


Connect the main points with

1) transitions
- link ideas
2) sign posts
- indicate direction of the speech to audience
3) internal previews
- gives advance warnings of points going to be covered
4) internal summaries or reviews
- short review statement at the end of main point



1) orient/gain attention
2) thesis
3) motivate the audience to listen/establish credibility
4) relate to the audience
5) forecast main points/preview



- the audiences perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a topic and has the best interests of the audience at mind



1) show that you are finishing your speech
2) restate thesis
3) review main points
4) end with a memorable thought


3 Principles in Outlining the speech

1) Subcoordination
- clearly identifies the hierarchy of ideas
2) Coordination
- suggests that the ideas with the same level of importance use the same kinds of numbers and symbols to visually indicate the relationship between the ideas
3) Parallelism
- style in which all ideas, main points, sub points and so on use similar grammatical forms and language patterns


Types of outlines

1) preliminary outline
- list of all the points that may be used in the speech
2) full-sentence outline
- expands on the ideas you have decided to include in you speech written in full sentences
3) presentational outline
- concise, condensed outline with notations, usually a combination of full sentences and key words or phrases


Speech anxiety

- a multi-system response that creates a combination of biochemical changes in the body in a communication situation


Communication apprehension

- the most severe form of speech anxiety, an anxiety syndrome associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons


*Systematic desensitization

- is a relaxation technique designed to reduce the tenseness associated with anxiety
- goal is to help develop a new, relaxed response to anxiety provoking event


**4 Most common methods of delivery

1) Impromptu delivery
- little or no formal planning, thinking on feet
2) manuscript delivery
- reading a speech word for word, every word must be stated precisely (state of the union)
3) memorized delivery
- requires one to memorize an entire speech, for short presentations, lacks flexibility, can forget what you wanted to say and can be mechanical sounding
4) extemporaneous delivery
- speaker uses carefully prepared and researched speech, delivered using format notes allowing for flexibility, more conversational between memorized manuscript and impromptu


Vocal quality

- overall impression a speakers voice makes on his or her listeners



- vocal volume, distinctiveness of sound, clarity of pronunciation, articulation and stress placed on delivery


Vocal variety

- variations in rate, force and pitch


Physical aspects

1) personal appearance
- dress and look appropriate
2) body movement
3) gestures
- help illustrate points
4) eye contact


Presentational Aids

- helps with delivery
- makes speech easy to understand and memorable
- enhance speaks credibility
- creates audience attention and interest
- provides support


Types of presentational aids

1) computer generated images
2) video and digitized video clips
3) real objects
4) models
- line graph shows a trend over time
5) photographs, drawings and diagrams