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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (48):
1

Communication

- the simultaneous sharing and creating of meaning through human symbolic interaction

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Communication competence

- the ability to take part in effective communication by
1) skills
2) understanding (why)
3) connection (speaker and audience)

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Communication and our technological society

1) social media
2) social networks
3) communication and career development
4) communication and ethical behavior
5) communication and our multicultural diversity

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Principles of Communication

1) communication is a process
2) communication is a system
3) communication is transactional (2 ways)
4) communication can be intentional or unintentional

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**Essential Components of Communications

1) source/sender (encoding)
2) message
3) interference/noise
4) channel
5) receiver (decoding)
6) feedback
7) environment
8) context

(Harcombe ex wink ends up being taken as eyedrops?)

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Types of Communication

1) Intrapersonal Communication
- understanding info within ones self (thinking)
2) Interpersonal Communication
a. Dyadic communication - btw 2 people (interview)
b. Small group
3) Public Communication
4) Mass Communication
5) communication via social media

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7 Distinguishing factors from social media to face to face communication

1) interactivity
- the ability to communicate between groups and individuals through a comm tool
2) temporal structure
- the time it takes to receive and send messages
3) social cues
- verbal and nonverbal features of a message
4) replicability
- easy to record or redistribute past messages
5) storage
- face to face interactions are gone after
6) reach
- social media allows contact with people much further
7) mobility
- face to face is as mobile as walking

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Misconceptions about communication

1) communication is a cure-all
2) quantity means quality
3) meaning is in the words we use
4) we have a natural ability to communicate
5) communication is reversible

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Public speaking

- the art of oral communication with an audience

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5 Techniques for finding a topic to public speak about

1) self-inventory
- lists of subjects u find interesting
2) brainstorm
3) reviewing the current media
4) engage listeners with social media
5) surf the web

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*informative speech

- enhances the audiences knowledge and understanding by explaining what something is, how it works and why. Inform not biased.

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*Persuasive Speech

- attempt to change the listeners belief attitude or behavior. Must present evidence and arguments. Difference between this and informative speeches is the action of audience as a result.

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* entertainment speech

- provide enjoyment and amusement

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*general purpose or overall goal of speeches

1) to inform
2) to persuade
3) to entertain

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Specific purpose of a speech

- a single phrase that defines precisely what you intend to accomplish in your speech
- an EFFECTIVE sp identifies
1) the general purpose of the speech
2) the audience
3) the exact topic to be covered

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Thesis

- says exactly what is going to be discussed during the speech

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*Audience analysis

- the collection and interpretation of data about characteristics, attitudes, values, and beliefs of an audience
- understanding the listeners point of view

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*captive versus voluntary participants

1) Captive
- people who are required to hear the speech
2) voluntary
- want to hear the speech because of a particular interest or need

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Demographic Analysis

- the collection of basic information to help the speaker relate to the audience
- age, gender, cultural or ethnic background, education, occupation, religion, geographical origins,group membership

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Psychological Analysis

- collection of data on an audience members values, attitudes and beliefs
- size of audience, physical setting, knowledge level, attitudes and values related to the topic, attitudes related to the situation

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Ways to learn about the audience

1) observation
2) questionnaires
3) survey interview
- Q&A session before the speech

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*Research: Gathering information

1) The Internet
- make sure reliable and credible
-it needs:
an author, publishing body, currency and a purpose

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Using research to support and clarify ideas

1) testimony
- opinions or conclusions of a witness
2) examples
- simple representative incident that clarifies a point
3) definitions
- clarification of a term
4) Statistics
- numerical data that interpret circumstances

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Cite sources

1) orally (author, date, source)
2) in the text of the outline
3) in the APA bibliography

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Organizing speech

- arranging the speech into its parts into a systematic and meaningful whole
- 3 parts: intro, body and conclusion

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Main points

- are the principal subdivisions of a speech
- are broad statements that help organize your main particulars found through research

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Presenting the main points

1) be precise
2) use vivid language
3) show relevance
4) creative parallel structure

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Time sequence or chronological pattern

- presentation begins at a particular point in time and continues either forward or backwards

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Spatial pattern

- content of a speech is organized according to relationships in space

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Topical pattern

- the main topic is divided into a series of subtopics

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Mind mapping

- an organizational strategy in which you visually map out how various ideas connect

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Narrative or storytelling

- using a report of ideas and situations, as in a story but without the traditional story components

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Connect the main points with

1) transitions
- link ideas
2) sign posts
- indicate direction of the speech to audience
3) internal previews
- gives advance warnings of points going to be covered
4) internal summaries or reviews
- short review statement at the end of main point

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Introductions

1) orient/gain attention
2) thesis
3) motivate the audience to listen/establish credibility
4) relate to the audience
5) forecast main points/preview

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Credibility

- the audiences perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a topic and has the best interests of the audience at mind

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Conclusion

1) show that you are finishing your speech
2) restate thesis
3) review main points
4) end with a memorable thought

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3 Principles in Outlining the speech

1) Subcoordination
- clearly identifies the hierarchy of ideas
2) Coordination
- suggests that the ideas with the same level of importance use the same kinds of numbers and symbols to visually indicate the relationship between the ideas
3) Parallelism
- style in which all ideas, main points, sub points and so on use similar grammatical forms and language patterns

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Types of outlines

1) preliminary outline
- list of all the points that may be used in the speech
2) full-sentence outline
- expands on the ideas you have decided to include in you speech written in full sentences
3) presentational outline
- concise, condensed outline with notations, usually a combination of full sentences and key words or phrases

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Speech anxiety

- a multi-system response that creates a combination of biochemical changes in the body in a communication situation

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Communication apprehension

- the most severe form of speech anxiety, an anxiety syndrome associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons

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*Systematic desensitization

- is a relaxation technique designed to reduce the tenseness associated with anxiety
- goal is to help develop a new, relaxed response to anxiety provoking event

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**4 Most common methods of delivery

1) Impromptu delivery
- little or no formal planning, thinking on feet
2) manuscript delivery
- reading a speech word for word, every word must be stated precisely (state of the union)
3) memorized delivery
- requires one to memorize an entire speech, for short presentations, lacks flexibility, can forget what you wanted to say and can be mechanical sounding
4) extemporaneous delivery
- speaker uses carefully prepared and researched speech, delivered using format notes allowing for flexibility, more conversational between memorized manuscript and impromptu

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Vocal quality

- overall impression a speakers voice makes on his or her listeners

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Intelligibility

- vocal volume, distinctiveness of sound, clarity of pronunciation, articulation and stress placed on delivery

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Vocal variety

- variations in rate, force and pitch

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Physical aspects

1) personal appearance
- dress and look appropriate
2) body movement
3) gestures
- help illustrate points
4) eye contact
- MOST IMPORTANT

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Presentational Aids

- helps with delivery
- makes speech easy to understand and memorable
- enhance speaks credibility
- creates audience attention and interest
- provides support

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Types of presentational aids

1) computer generated images
2) video and digitized video clips
3) real objects
4) models
- line graph shows a trend over time
5) photographs, drawings and diagrams