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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (124):


- way to obscure meaning, an inoffensive or mild expression given in place of one that may offend, cause embarrassment, or suggest something unpleasant
- can diffuse emotional charge associated with controversial or difficult concepts
- can give something a more positive connotation
Ex: saying passed away instead of died


Appeals to needs

- attempts to move people to action by calling on physical and psychological requirements and desires

Maslows hierarchy of needs
- physical, safety, social and self esteem needs



- the use of nonverbal cues to complete, describe, or accent verbal cues
Ex: I missed the cup by inches (uses thumb and index to show how close)
Or a person needs help immediately, so he yells as loudly as possible



- deliberate misuse of language to distort/conceal meaning
Ex: the company is downsizing, really means their laying off employees



- a dysfunction in which group members value the harmony of the group more than new ideas, examining own assumptions, changing flawed decisions or allowing new members to participate



- based on their perceptions of your trustworthiness and ethics (honest and fair)

1) trustworthiness- the audiences perception of a speakers reliability and dependability
2) ethics - an individual's system of moral principles
Establish by:
- citing correctly (oral footnote - specific about from whom and where your info came)
- not falsifying or distorting info to make a point
- respecting your audience



- the way we vocalize or say the words we speak
- includes speech rate, accents, articulation, pronunciation and silence
- vocal fillers like "um" "like" are because of subculture, nervousness and habit
- includes pitch, vocal force, rate, quality, and pauses
- the way we vary our voices conveys different meanings to receivers



- words used to describe something


Body movements

- reveals a lot about physical states and the extent to which we possess certain traits
- 5 Categories
1) Emblems- translate directly to words
Ex: peace sign means peace
2) illustrators- accent, reinforce, or emphasize a verbal message
Ex: a child holds up his hand to indicate how tall he is saying he's a big boy, instructor underlining a word on a PowerPoint slide to emphasize it
3) regulators - control, monitor, or maintains interactions between or among speakers and listeners
Ex: eye contact, nod of the head, looking at clock or wristwatch
4) affect displays- body movements that express emotions
Ex: sad face, slouching, jumping up/down
5) adaptors- help one feel at ease in communication situations
Ex: scratching, smoothing hair, putting hands in front of face, moving closer to someone



- the neglect of individual differences and the overemphasis of similarities
- often results in stereotyping (categorizing of events, objects, and people without regard to unique individual characteristics and quality)
- often negative

1) indexing
2) dating



- replaces a verbal message with nonverbal signals to exchange thoughts
Ex: two people use hand signals to communicate because the environment is too noisy to hear each others voices



- personal adornments or possessions that communicate information about us
Ex: body piercings, tattoos, grooming, glasses, clothing


Question of fact

- persuasive topic
- asks what is true and what is false
- facts that can be verified with little debate
- could try to predict answers to questions that could become fact
Ex: who created Facebook?
When will science find a cure for cancer?



- worked through differences
- rules and norms are established
- members are recognized for certain skills and abilities


Using language effectively

- use accurate language
- use vivid language
- use immediate language
- use appropriate language
- use metaphorical language



- subjective meaning of a word, what a word suggests is based on the context in which a word is used,
- the understanding of the person receiving it because of the feeling it evokes


Personal space

- ranges from distances of 1.5 to 4 feet between people
- conversations with close friends/relatives
- feel uncomfortable if someone we don't know well enters this zone



- members begin to take on important issues - when differences and emotions about the issues being discussed surface
- conflict



- characteristic of small group
- the attraction that group members feel for each other and their willingness to stick together
- a form of loyalty


Eye behavior

- oculesics: study of eye movement or behavior
- any movement or behavior of the eyes
- part of kinesics



- group completes task and is ready to move on to other tasks or disband



- rules that govern how words are put together to form phrases and sentences


Monroes Motivated Sequence Pattern

5 step sequence to organize persuasive speeches that need immediate action
1) Attention- gain attention of audience
2) need- show the need for change
3) satisfaction- provide a solution to the need
4) visualization- intensify desire for the solution by visualizing its benefits
5) action- urge the audience to take action in support of the solution


1) linguistic determinism
2) linguistic relativity

- part of Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
1) theory that language determines thought
2) the theory that people from different language communities perceive the world differently


Facial expression

- configurations of the face that can reflect, augment, contradict, or appear unrelated to a speakers message.
- facial expressions convey the most information.
Six basic emotions
1) anger
2) fear
3) happiness
4) sadness
5) surprise
6) disgust


Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

- an explanation of how thought influences our reality and how our thought process is influenced by our language
- explains the connection of culture and language

2 theories:
1) linguistic determinism
2) linguistic relativity


Pendulum effect

- part of polarization
- escalating conflict between two individuals or groups that results from their use of polar terms to describe and defend their perceptions of reality


Concrete words

- symbols for specific things that can be pointed to or physically experiences
- represent specific tangible objects and their meaning is clear
- become more concrete as get more specific
Ex: flag, house, soda, food



- a dimension of leadership that focuses on establishing good interpersonal relationships on being liked by group members



- the study of meaning, or the association of words with ideas, feelings, and contexts


1) indexing
2) dating

- way to reduce indiscrimination
1) identifying the specific persons, ideas, events or objects a statement refers to
2) another technique for reducing indiscriminate
- sorts people, ideas, events, and objects according to time



- referred to as body language, any movement of the face or body that communicates a message



- the appeal or attractiveness that the audience perceives in the speaker
- contributes to credibility


Fact vs opinion

- speakers that state opinions as if they are facts


Initiating structure

- a dimension of leadership style that focuses on getting the job done (task-orientated)



- an action asking listeners to demonstrate their acceptance of an attitude, belief, or value by continuing to perform the behavior suggested
- try to keek an existing behavior rather than begin a new one
Ex: continue to purchase and consume more organic food


Either or reasoning

- only 2 options exist, right or wrong, no in between



- a structured system of signs, sounds, gestures, or marks used to express ideas and feelings among people within a community
- can influence perceptions of others and allows us to share meaning with others


Sexist language

- part if gender inclusive language
- creates sexual stereotypes or implies that one gender is superior to another
- language can perpetuate stereotypes


Language commonalities

- words mean different things to different people
- meaning of words change from time to time


Maintenance needs

- related to organizing and developing a group, so that members can realize personal satisfaction of working together
Ex: atmosphere, role, structure, responsibility


1) High context culture
2) Low context culture

1) a culture in which the meaning of the communication act is inferred from the situation or location, language is indirect, nonspecific and not assertive
Ex: if go to dinner no hidden agenda only dinner talk

2) the meaning of communication act is inferred from the messages being sent and not the location where the communication occurs, more assertive and direct
Ex: conducting business at dinner


4 Elements of Language

1) sounds - not all people make sounds in the same way, can differ based on religions or culture
2) words- symbols that stand for objects and concepts, have meaning because cultures give them meaning
3) grammar- rules that govern how words may be joined into phrases and sentences, crucial to competent communication
4) meaning- gives language purpose
- semantics: the association of words with ideas, feelings and contexts


Immediate (verbal immediacy)

- identifies and projects the speakers feelings and makes the message more relevant to the listener
- draws listener in and involves them
- more likely to view messages as similar to their own beliefs


Accurate language

- not being accurate can distort an intended message, misguide the listener and undermine your credibility


Three modes of persuasion

1) ethos (credibility)
- speakers character as perceived by the listeners
2) logos (logic)
- the substance of the speech or the logical appeals the speaker makes
3) pathos (emotion)
- the speakers evoking of appropriate emotion from the listeners


Question of value

- persuasive topic
- asks whether something is good or bad
- desirable or undesirable
- values are relatively long lasting ideals that guide behavior
Ex: is a vegan diet really superior?


Target audience

- the portion of the whole audience that the speaker wants to persuade



- the need for us to identify certain amounts of space as our own
- aspect of proxemics



- controls flow of communication
Ex: a person nods head as a way of communicating "I am interested in what u are saying" implying "tell me more"



- occurs when members first meet
- focus on getting along "best foot forward"


Supporting materials

1) appeal to needs
2) logos (logical appeals)
3) emotional appeals


Why should you know about nonverbal communication

- carries most of the meaning of the message particularly feelings and attitudes toward others
- is a frequent source of misunderstandings
- is not governed by a set of universal rules
- is multi-channeled, complicated and ever-changing
- is bound to context and culture
- is more likely than verbal communication to be spontaneous and unintentional
- is more powerful and believable than verbal communication
- is learned (not always consciously)
- is critical in relationship initiation, development and termination



- a figure of speech that associates two things or ideas, not commonly linked, used as a means of description
- culture bound or within a specific language community


Democratic leader

- shares control and makes decision in consultation



- an argument that is flawed because it does not follow the rules of logic



- a communication process, involving both verbal and nonverbal messages that attempt to reinforce or change listeners attitudes, beliefs values or behaviors


Organize your presentation

- a clear and orderly sequence that makes the material easy to follow and understand
- chronological, topical and spatial

2 Techniques
1) planned repetition
- the deliberate restating of a thought to increase the likelihood that the audience will understand and remember it
Ex: TV commercials where they say the product name 12 times
2) advance organizers
- similar to signposts because they signal what is coming, but warn what is about to be said is significant
Ex: the next concepts will be critical for you to understand in completing the project


Autocratic leader

- complete control and makes decisions with little or no consultation



- tendency to view things in terms of extremes even though most things exist somewhere in between
- can be destructive and lead to pendulum effect


Gender inclusive language

- language that does not discriminate against males or females
- sexist language



- involves the willingness to change behavior to fit a given situation, an awareness of how we affect others, and the ability to regulate nonverbal cues and other factors to influence others impressions
- concerned with both projecting the desired image and the ability to asses the effects of the image communicated to others
- the ability to change nonverbal behaviors to be better received and perceived in the desired way


Regional differences in language

1) slang
2) jargon
3) euphemism
4) doublespeak



- proxemics is the study of how we use space and the distance we place between others and ourselves when communicating
- territoriality
- variables that influence space are status, sex, culture and context

Four zones
1) intimate space
2) personal space
3) social space
4) public space


Information relevance

- making information relevant to an audience to give them a reason to listen
- provide a new perspective (new information attracts attention of an audience)
- focus on the unusual (helps maintain the attention of the audience)


Logical appeals (logos)

- attempts to move people to action through the use of evidence and proof
- justification, or data, uses stats, examples, testimonies, etc
1) deductive reasoning
- general thoughts to specific conclusion
2) inductive reasoning
- specific to general
3) casual reasoning
- links causes with effects, "because"
4) reasoning by analogy
- what is true in one case will be true in a similar case



- opposite of adoption, an action subgoal that asks listeners to demonstrate their alteration of an attitude, belief, or value by stopping certain behaviors
- a negative behavior primarily
Ex: stop smoking


*Functions of nonverbal behavior

- complementing
- repeating
- regulating
- substituting
- deceiving



- language used by groups to keep the meaning of the communication within the group
- change frequently and are specific to certain regions and groups


Ad hominem

- when someone attacks a person rather than their argument


Establishing a group culture

- refers to the pattern of values, beliefs, norms and behaviors that are shared by group members and that shapes a groups individual personality.


Hasty generalization

- when a speaker doesn't have sufficient data and therefore argues or reasons from a specific example

- doesn't represent a large sample


Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern

Main points
1) problem
2) cause
3) solution


Descriptive feedback

- describing to the sender what you perceived the message to mean


Group norms

- the expected and shared ways in which group members behave



- members work as a group
- recognize interdependency on eachother
- not every group gets here


Stages of group formation * (Tuckmans classic model to group development)

1) forming
2) storming
3) norming
4) performing
5) adjourning


Public space

- 12 or more feet distance in between
- public speaking situations or other formal presentations


Style switch

- when people from co-cultures speak the language of their own culture but switch to that of the dominant culture when needed and appropriate
- Marsha Houstons idea


Principled negation

- a procedure that helps group members negotiate consensus by collaboration through the expression of each different need and a search for alternatives to meet those needs



- an action subgoal asking listeners to demonstrate their acceptance of an attitude belief or value by performing the behavior suggested by the speaker


Intimate space

- distance from no space to 1.5 feet between two people
- most personal
- usually well aquatinted


Difference between language, talk, speech and communication

1) language- is a structured system of signs, sounds, gestures, or marks that allow people to express ideas and feelings to others
2) talk- what we do every day
3) speech- one vehicle used to transmit language
4) communication- the exchange of meaning, language is a way we communicate


Task needs

- needs related to the content of the job to be done and all behaviors that lead to the completion of it
Ex: defining and assessing the task, gathering information, studying the problem and solving it



- a symbol that stands for the object or concept it names



- referred to tactile communication or haptics
- one of the most basic forms of communication
5 Categories of Touch:
1) functional-professional
- unsympathetic, impersonal, cold, or businesslike touch
Ex: a doctor touches a patient during a physical examination of a tailor touches a customer while measuring
2) social-polite
- acknowledgement of another person according to the norms and rules of society
Ex: two people shake hands or kiss one another
3) friendship-warmth
- expresses an appreciation of the special attributes of another or warm feelings for another
- most misinterpreted type of behavior
Ex: two men or two women meet in an airport, hug and walk off with arms around each other, OR athletes touch a shoulder or pat eachother on their butts
4) love-intimacy
- occurs in romantic relationships, highly communicative and usually requires consent between both parties
Ex: two people hug, caress, embrace and kiss
5) sexual arousal
- the most intimate level of personal contact with another, expresses physical interaction between consenting individuals
Ex: sexual touch behaviors foreplay and sex



- generate as many ideas as possible within a time limit


Red herring

- including irrelevant info to divert attention from real issue



- what a speaker means and what is heard and understood by the listener differs
- most words have multiple uses and meanings but could also occur because of cultural differences



- active, direct, and fresh language that brings a sense of excitement, urgency and forcefulness to the message
- makes the audience more inclined to listen, more persuasive because mire memorable and has an emotional impact



- communicative, powerful messages that often say volumes, whether intended or not
- vocal pauses: are hesitations usually short in duration, can be used to emphasize a word or thought or to make a point to get others attention
- silence: an extended period of time without sound, can be awkward in a conversation but also expected in certain contexts, cultural differences
Ex: in Japan silence establishes credibility


Problem-solution pattern

- 2 main points
Main point 1- documents the existence of a problem
Main point 2- presents a Solution to the problem


Functional approach

- using more than one nonverbal message at a time to look for meaning



- words whose meaning can not be understood according to ordinary usage


Ladder of Abstraction

Best friend



- expresses a message identical to the verbal one
Ex: a person says yes so nods head up and down


Question of policy

- persuasive topic
- goes beyond seeking judgements, response to seeking a course of action
- whether something should or should not be done
- can defend an existing policy, suggest modifications or offer a new one
Ex: should all plastic bags be banned?


Group task roles

- help the group accomplish its task or objective
a. initiators or contributors -> provide direction, propose ideas and make suggestions
B. Information seeker or giver
C. Evaluator or critic
D. Energizer
E. Orienter
F. Coordinator



- the common standard dictionary meaning associated with a word


Abstract words

- symbols for ideas, qualities, and relationships, meanings depend on the experiences and intentions of the people using them
- represent intangible objects that cannot be experienced through the senses
ex: joy, stubborn, liberty


Nonverbal communication

- behaviors, symbols, attributes or objects whether intended or not that communicate messages with social meaning
- includes tone of voice, facial expressions, posture, gestures and appearance
- can carry more meaning and power than our verbal communication


Post hoc fallacy

- one attributes something as a cause because it followed another incident
Ex: the Tigers won every game bc I wore the same socks



- language used by certain groups or specific disciplines that may be technical or too specialized to be understood by the general population
Ex: scientists talking



- an action that asks listeners to demonstrate their acceptance of an attitude, belief or value by avoiding certain behaviors
- trying to prevent the occurrence of a negative behavior rather than end
Ex: if you eat a good bkfast don't stop now


Cause effect pattern

Main points
1) cause, problem or issue
2) effect



- psychological and physical surroundings which communication occurs
- the environment impacts the individuals, their backgrounds and their perception of what is important to them at the time of the interaction
- best environment allow speakers intended message to be delivered accurately
Ex: soft music and dim lights would work for a romantic encounter but not for a pregame rally



- establishing credibility
- believability based on the audiences perception

Influenced By:
1) competence
2) character
3) charisma


Muted group theory

- suggest that underrepresented groups are not as free or able as men to say what they mean and where they wish
- status and power are linked
- examples: women, ethnic minorities, elderly, gay


Comparative advantage

Main points
1) problem
2) solution A
3) solution B
4) solution C


Characteristics of nonverbal communication

- occurs constantly
- more believable
- related to culture based on norms and rules that govern the management of behavior
- depends on context
- primary means of expression because we can detect how someone's feeling without them saying anything
- ambiguous when nonverbal channels such as texting and emailing are used because tones and e press ion can't be heard or seen so it can lead to miscommunication or interpretation


1) contrast definition
2) synonyms
3) antonym
4) etymology

1) used to show or emphasize differences
- helpful to distinguish between similar terms
2) a word, phrase or concept that has the same meaning of another word, phrase or concept
3) a word, phrase or concept that has the opposite meaning of another word, phrase or concept
4) a form of definition that traces the origin and development of a word



- is knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstance(news)
- knowledge gained through study, communication, research instruction, factual data


The goals of persuasive speaking

1) adopt
2) discontinuance
3) deter
4) continuance



- purposely disguise or mislead to create a false impression ("poker face")
- to avoid hurting ones feelings, conceal our feelings and reactions or to avoid being caught
Ex: a doctor examining a patient discovers a serious problem, but the doctors facial expressions remain neutral so he doesn't alarm the patient


Language based barriers to communication

- ineffective use of language, bypassing, indiscrimination and polarization


Social space

- 4 to 12 feet between people
- most professional conversations at this distance and group interactions like meetings


1) intensifying
2) deintensifying
3) neutralizing
4) masking

- facial management techniques
1) exaggeration of reactions to meet others expectations
2) understatement of reactions to meet others expectations
3) avoidance of any emotional expression in a situation "poker face" shows no expression
4) replacement of one expression with another considered more appropriate for the situation


Laissez-Faire Leader

- passive and usually gives up control so others will take over, avoids participation


Problem solving and decision making

1) identify and define the problem
2) analyze the problem
- determine criteria for judging solutions
3) identify alternative solutions
4) evaluate solutions and decide
- choose and implement the best decision
- expert opinion, average group opinion, majority rule, unanimous decision and consensus method
5) implement agreed upon solution



- the amount of knowledge, degree of involvement and extent of experience you display
Establish expertise by:
1) demonstrating involvement
2) relate experience
3) cite research


Emotional appeals

- attempts to move people to action by playing on their feelings
- can be highly effective but not logical


Questionable cause

- common fallacy that occurs when a speaker asserts something that does not relate to or produce the outcome claimed in the argument
Ex: attendance at home games has risen because nothing else to do



- chronometers is the study of how people perceive structure and use time as communication
- particularly sensitive to our time but are more chill if it is someone of authority or close relations
- cultural differences in approach to time


Appropriate language

- different types of language are appropriate to different situations
- if language is inappropriate can da age credibility because the message can be misinterpreted