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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (76):
1

social psychology

the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of behaviors
affect, behavior, cognition

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social influences shaping our behavior

we adapt to our context
our cultures help define our situations

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social behavior is biologically rooted

our inherited human nature predisposes us to behave in ways that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce
goal: to perpetuate our DNA

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not-so-obvious ways values enter psychology

science is subjective based on culture
sometimes scientists may put labels on people as if they're facts, but they're really making value judgments

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hindsight bias

after finding out the results, you think, "oh I knew it all along" / "that's common sense"

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correlational research

detecting natural associations
how much two or more variables are related to each other
quantified with r from -1.0 (opposite correlation) to 1.0 (exact correlation)

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experimental research

searching for cause and effect

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independent variable

involves manipulation

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dependent variable

variable that you're observing how it changes when you manipulate the independent variable

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mundane realism

measure of external validity

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experimental realism

the extent to which situations created in social psychology experiments are real and impactful to participants

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demand characteristics

subtle cues that make the participant aware of what the experimenter expects to find

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random assignment

how you manipulate the variable

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random sampling

how you gather your population

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looking glass self

how other perceive you influences who you think you are (ex: I am kind because others tell me I'm kind)—seeing ourselves at center stage

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spotlight effect

others are paying less attention to your behavior than you think they are

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illusion of transparency

the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others

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self-schemas

beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information

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possible selves

images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future

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self-esteem

sense of self-worth

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humanistic theory

if real self and ideal self are completely aligned, then there is no mental illness—if they are discrepant, mental illness occurs

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self-knowledge

How can I explain and predict myself?

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individualism

being unique and different, self-reliance, emphasis on exchange and competition, emphasis on confidence, tend to be more liberal—only 15% of the world population

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collectivism

being part of a group, group identity, social and norms are defined by the group, high regard to authority, tend to be more conservative, more modest

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interdependent self

measure of individualism and collectivism

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independent self-concept

self is separate from people around you

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interdependent self-concept

(part of a collectivistic group) your self-concept is connected to your relationships with other people in your social circle

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impact bias

overestimation the emotional impact of a future event

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immune neglect

unawareness or underestimation of one's tendency to cope with negative events

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planning fallacy

tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task

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affect forecasting

asking people how they would feel if a particular event happened to them

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narcissism

high narcissism + high self-esteem = high aggression

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high non-fluctuating self esteem

most depressed

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self-efficacy

a sense that one is competent and effective
very related to job and academic achievement

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perceived self-control

we try to control our environments, we like to feel in-control

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learned helplessness

no matter what I do, I'll be punished, so I might as well stay here (dog experiment)

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belief in a just world

"If I study hard, I will get an A."
can cause us to blame the victim

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internal locus of control

rewards and punishments are produced by their own actions

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external locus of control

rewards and punishments are independent of what they do, not the result of effort

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self-serving bias

we perceive ourselves favorably
we associate ourselves with success but distance ourselves from failure (internal vs. external locus of control)

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unrealistic optimism

increases our vulnerability
believing ourselves immune to misfortune

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defensive pessimist

a pessimistic idea becomes the motivation to study more

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false consensus effect/bias

on the matter of opinion, people tend to overestimate the proportion of people that will agree with us

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false uniqueness effect/bias

on the matter of ability, we underestimate the proportion of persons that share our skills

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false modesty

putting down oneself or building up another person but not really meaning it

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self-handicapping

protecting one's self-image by deliberately sabotaging oneself
protecting one's self-image with behaviors that become a handy excuse for later failure (ex: athletes and alcohol)

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study with drugs to increase IQ

65% of the high score group took the decrease drug
25% of the low score group took the decrease drug

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self-presentation

the act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals

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self-monitoring

being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression

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priming

perceiving and interpreting events, activation of certain associations in memory

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embodied cognition

the mutual influence of bodily sensations on social judgment (ex: holding a warm drink causes people to treat others more warmly)

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media views

people think that the media is biased against their view

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Kruger and Denning study

participants who score at the bottom of grammar, logic, and humor tend to be overconfident of such skills

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reconstruction

constructing the feeling of your memories to match your present feeling

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confirmation bias

the tendency to search for information that confirms one's perceptions

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counterregulation effect

what the heck effect w/milkshakes

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overconfidence phenomenon

the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs

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heuristics

mental shortcuts

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representative heuristic

quick judgment of whether someone fits a category (ex: Prof Y)

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availability heuristic

quick judgment based on the immediate example that comes to their mind

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counterfactual thinking

imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened, but didn't
"what if?"
the more significant and unlikely the event, the more intense the counterfactual thinking

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illusory correlation

perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists

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belief perseverence

once we have decided that we believe something, we tend to keep believing it, even in the face of disconforming evidence

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illusion of control

tendency for humans to believe that they can control outcomes that they really have no influence on whatsoever (ex: athletes not washing socks)

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dispositional attribution

attributing someone's behavior to an internal characteristic (ex: she's lazy)

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situational attribution

attributing someone's behavior to an external characteristic (ex: her parents didn't take care of her)

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misattribution

mistakenly attributing a behavior to the wrong source

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the fundamental attribution error

our tendency to underestimate situational influence and overestimate dispositional influence on others' behavior

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Why do we make the fundamental attribution error?

actor/observer difference/perspective
self-fulfilling prophecy
camera perspective bias
self-awareness
cultural differences

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actor/observer difference/perspective

when we act, the situation is the situation of our attention, but when other people act, they are the center of our attention

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self-fulfilling prophecy

video w/kids getting smarter when teachers thought they would (climate factor, input factor, response opportunity factor, feedback factor)

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camera perspective bias

when the camera is focused on a subject, people think they are honest
when the camera is focused on the detective, people think the subject is being forced to confess

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self-awareness

leads to self-consciousness (internal attribution) rather than situational consciousness

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cultural differences (fundamental attribution error)

Americans (individualistic people) do more personal attributions
Indians (collectivistic people) do more situational attributions
increases with age

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behavior =

f(personality x environment) [Kurt Lewin]

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misinformation effect

integrating misinformation into one's memory after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it