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Flashcards in exam 2 Deck (60):
1

opening paragraphs of chapter 4

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2

expressed attitudes?

not good predictors of behavior

3

Allan Wicker

"It may be desirable to abandon the attitude concept."
looked at studies and found that there was rarely over a 30% correlation

4

more recent studies on attitude and behavior

attitude does predict behavior, formulas that can do it
use both implicit (unconscious) and explicit attitude to predict behavior

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when does attitude predict behavior?

when attitude is very specific to the behavior
when attitudes are very strong, people tend to behave accordingly
prejudiced attitudes predict discriminatory behavior (affect and cognition)
implicit attitudes predict implicit behavior (same for explicit attitudes)

6

How do we measure attitudes?

implicit attitude test:
bogus pipelines
reaction time measures
physiological measures

7

bogus pipelines

fooling people into disclosing their attitude by convincing them that a machine can be used to gauge their private attitudes

8

physiological measures for attitudes

EEG, fMRI, heart rate

9

The Theory of Planned Behavior

Factor 1: attitude toward the behavior ("I'm for physical fitness"
Factor 2: subjective norms ("My neighbors seem to be jogging and going to the gym")
Factor 3: perceived control ("I could easily do this")—self-efficacy scale
All three factors lead to behavior intention ("I'm going to start next week")
...leads to behavior

10

roleplaying

Stanford Prison Experiment
Higgins study
roleplay influences attitude

11

Higgins study

Person A was asked to write a personal description of Person B and then report it to the authority figure. If Person A knows that the authority figure likes Person B, they tend to write a more positive description of Person B. Person A tends to begin to like Person B more

12

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

people are more willing to comply with a larger request when they have first complied with a smaller request

13

low-ball technique

tactics for getting people to agree to something first—people who agree to an initial request will often still comply later

14

evil and moral acts

Study about killing bugs: the people who believed that they killed 5 bugs are more willing to kill more bugs (as opposed to the group that only killed 1)

15

main effect

people who believed that they killed bugs tended to go farther with killing than people that believed it was just a simulation

16

interracial and racial attitudes

after segregation ended, people's attitudes changed dramatically

17

self-presentation

impression management—ego protection

18

self-justification

cognitive dissonance theory

19

cognitive dissonance theory

People have a fundamental cognitive drive to reduce dissonance by modifying an existing belief
Leon Festinger experiment: the people paid the least changed their actual opinion of the task so they didn’t have to lie; the people paid the most just lied and didn’t need to change their opinion because it was worth it to lie
Iraq war: we got into the war because we thought there were weapons of mass destruction—there weren’t any, so we changed our objective

20

self-perception

we develop our attitude by observing our own behavior and then conclude what attitude must have caused the behavior (ex: I'm behaving this way, so I must have this attitude)

21

over-justification

The result of bringing people to do what they already like doing. They may then see their action as externally controlled if they get some incentive, rather than just internally appealing.

22

Lukaszewski and Roney study

preference for dominance in a partner was highest when estrogen is highest (when you are fertile)

23

norms

expected behavior

24

universal friendship norms

people think that friendship is important, respect your friends, don't divulge their secrets

25

universal traits dimension

in every culture, people designate between good and bad

26

incest

generally always taboo

27

gender: independence vs. connectedness

Women give priority to connectedness
Women seek support in stress, men seek to combat the stressor
Empathy is difficult to measure, so really no difference in empathy between men and women

28

personality variance attribution

only 10% to gender

29

culture and gender

Men are judged on their potential, whereas women are judged strictly on what they have already accomplished
Women get polarized evaluations from students or peers: women who are superstars get high evaluations while women whose work is merely excellent tend to get sharply lower evaluations than similarly situated men

30

conformity

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31

compliance

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obedience

compliance with direct demand or order

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acceptance

believing and acting in accord with social pressure

34

Sherif's studies of norm formation

Participants placed in a dark room, bright light moving erratically, participants asked how far the light moved but they couldn’t really tell because it was such a dark room
Next day, same experiment in a group setting
After discussing as a group for four days, everyone had the same reported opinion
Ambiguous answer, turned to each other.
Norm was internalized.

35

Asch's studies of group pressure

Line length study, conforming to group opinion
5% conformity with partner giving correct answer.
35% conformity without.
100% correct when by themselves.
75% conformed at least once.

36

Milgram's obedience studies

66% percent go to 450 volts “XXX”

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150 volts

learner complains of pain

38

160 volts

pleads to be let out

39

300 volts

screams and refuses to answer

40

Milgram - only female participants

no differences between original all-males, but they did communicate more distress

41

Milgram - holding learner's arm onto a shock plate, person is right there in the room with them

compliance decreased to 30%

42

Milgram - experiment in Bridgeport, Connecticut

compliance dropped to 47%

43

Milgram - command conveyed through the phone

compliance decreased to 20%

44

Milgram - additional teacher who refused to continue

only 4 of 40 continued

45

Milgram - additional teacher who complied

3 out of 40 refused to continue

46

fundamental attribution error

students thought person from study was a terrible person

47

nurses administering addictive drugs

if someone takes responsibility for it, they'll keep going
Milgram thinks that's what happened in Nazi concentration camps

48

closeness and legitimacy of the authority

studied by Yale vs. Bridgeport, you’re more obedient to the person with the most authority

49

victim's distance

more obedient the farther away they are from the victim

50

group size

Up to 5 members, conformity increases with size. After 5, conformity rate stays the same

51

conformity and unanimity

if one person goes against the group, people are less likely to conform

52

conformity and cohesion

the greater the group cohesiveness, the greater the conformity (good relationship with each other)

53

conformity and status

higher-status people tend to conform to the higher-status people

54

conformity and personal characteristics

low self-esteem, low IQ, high need for affiliation and approval—tend to conform more easily

55

conformity and culture

conformity rate is the same across cultures except for Zimbabwe (they don’t conform, trained from childhood)

56

conformity and public response

people conform more when they respond publicly in front of others

57

normative influence

conformity based on person’s desire to fulfill others’ expectations to gain acceptance

58

informational influence

conformity that results from accepting evidence about reality provided by other people

59

psychological resistance

when people feel that their freedom to choose is threatened, they get an unpleasant feeling (called reactance), which motivates them to perform the threatened behavior (ex: parenting)
69% over the legal drinking age report drinking
77% under the drinking age report drinking

60

reactance

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