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physical and verbal behavior intended to cause harm
intention for immediate consequences


hostile aggression

driven by anger and performed as an end itself, reactive aggression


instrumental aggression

intended to harm as a means to another goal


Instinct Theory

aggression is an innate, unlearned behavior, seen in all species, people have aggressive behavior inside that must be released


Neural Influences

certain parts of the brain are responsible for aggression, particularly the limbic system (amygdala)


biochemical influences

alcohol and drugs, testosterone
higher testosterone = less pleased with life


Frustration-Aggression Theory

frustration triggers a readiness to aggress, sometimes tend to displace hostility to a safer target


Frustration-Aggression Theory, revised

frustration causes anger, which causes aggression


relative deprivation

perception that one is less well-off than others
happiness tends to be lower, crime rates higher in communities and nations with large income inequality


social learning theory

we reward aggressive behavior


observational learning

physical punishment and aggression are related, disciplining children with physical punishment teaches children how to punish bad behavior


aversive incidents

heat, pain, crowding cause aggression


gender and aggression

females and males are equally aggressive, but the difference is in direct or indirect aggression choices


aggression cues

influence affect, behavior, cognition
ex: having guns nearby


media influences on aggression

People that saw sexually violent video had rape myth increase
Showing neutral, erotic, and aggressive erotic film to men, then have them teach nonsense syllables to learners in shock paradigm (Milgram)
Viewers of aggressive erotic films administered greater, longer shocks in comparison to the other group of people, but only toward women
Minorities are virtually absent (on TV) and when they do show up, they are often victims or criminals


media's effects on behavior

Huesmann TV study:
Evaluated on desire to be like TV character, judgment of real-ness, aggressive behavior
Early childhood exposure to TV violence predicted aggressive behavior for both males and females 15 years later
Identification with same-sex TV characters and perception that violence is realistic also predicted adult aggression in adulthood


essay question - effects of video games - character identification

Teenage boys played realistic violent and non-realistic, non-violent video games
Random assignment, each boy only played one game
Boys rated how much they identified with the game character, how realistic the game was, and how immersive the game was
Could blast noise to their partner, told that a certain level would cause the other person to lose their hearing
The more people identified with a violent video game, the louder they would blast the noise (higher aggression level)
The more people identified with a nonviolent game character, the quieter they would blast the noise (lower aggression level)
Conclusion: playing violent video games causes aggression behavior


essay question - effects of video games - response to fight

Boys played a violent or nonviolent video game for 20 minutes
Heard a staged fight outside
Researchers measured whether or not they helped in the fight, how long they took to help
Participants rated how serious they thought the fight was
People were more likely to help if they had been playing a nonviolent video game
Time before helping was much longer for those that played the violent video game
Non-violent video game people perceived the fight as more serious


group influences

diffusion of responsibility increases with distance and with numbers


social contagion

groups magnify aggressive tendencies


catharsis theory

watching violence allows one to release pent-up energy


social learning approach to aggression

In experiments, children become less aggressive when caregivers ignore their aggressive behavior and reinforce their nonaggressive behavior
Punishment: aversive behavior because it models the behavior it seeks to prevent


intro to chapter 11

Satisfy the need to belong with autonomy and competence
Ostracized people exhibit heightened activity in a brain cortex area that also activates in response to physical pain
Ostracism’s social pain increases aggression



best predictor for friendship is physical proximity


functional distance

how often people's paths cross


mere exposure

if you're exposed to something multiple times, your attitude toward that thing becomes more favorable


physical attractiveness

attractiveness is the best predictor of how often women date, but the physical attractiveness didn't predict how often men date



people are attracted to those whose needs are complementary to their own


matching phenomenon

liking those who like us
dissimilarity in physical attractiveness increases the risk of breaking up


reward theory of attraction

people are attracted to those that provide some reward


passionate love

a state of intense longing for union with another


two-factor theory of emotion

arousal x its label = emotion
you experience something, interpret the experience, then identify the emotion
ambiguous arousal can be translated into an emotional state


companionate love

intimacy + commitment
the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined


fatuous love

passion + commitment


romantic love

intimacy + passion


the power of persuasive eyewitnesses

Jurors believe confident eyewitness
Less details is probably the more accurate eyewitness


when eyes deceive

Eyewitnesses are more confident than correct
Jurors find confident witnesses more believable
Those exhibiting the most emotion in the London Dungeon’s Horror Labyrinth made the most mistakes in identifying someone they had encountered
We are most at risk for false recollections made with high confidence with faces of another race


misinformation effect

incorporating "misinformation" into one's memory of the event after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it



retelling events commits people to their recollections, accurate or not


reducing error in court

Train place interviewers to not ask leading questions, ask for open-ended answers
Minimize false lineup identifications
- Put similar people in a lineup
- Show them a sequence of people instead of them all at once
Educate jurors


the defendant's characteristics

beautiful people seem like good people
similarity to jurors also influences liking



a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom, arises when someone threatens our sense of freedom
ex: a judge orders that a testimony be ignored


jury selection

jurors should understand instructions and statistical information


"death-qualified" jurors

How does it affect the court system?
Does it prevent time or is it a deterrent?
Most murders are crimes of passion, they aren't thinking of the death sentence


essay question on persuasion

- showed 2 different videos of Obama
- independent variable: the video showed (neutral or humorous)
- dependent variable: if their opinions changed or not on Obama politically (Is he a good politician? Is he a good person? Do you agree with his immigration policies?)
- people that watched humorous videos rated higher than those that watched neutral videos
- 2 routes of persuasion: central and peripheral


essay question on weapon cue effect

- you are more likely to be aggressive when you are just around a weapon
- study with truck that had a gun and an aggressive sticker - when truck was stalled at a light, people were more likely to honk and be aggressive
- more people honked when there was an aggressive sticker "vengeance"
- less people honked when sticker was neutral


essay question - social rejection and eating behavior

- group of people that were offered either fattening food or a healthier choice
- the ones that were socially accepted took the healthier food, people that were socially rejected took the more fattening choice
- independent variable: either rejected or accepted
- dependent variable: what they chose to eat (healthy or unhealthy)