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Flashcards in exam 3 Deck (42):
1

central route of persuasion

when people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts (when people are motivated and able)—audience is analytical and involved, deep processing

2

peripheral route of persuasion

when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness—audience isn’t analytical or involved, low need for cognition

3

sleeper effect

an initially discounted message becomes effective later

4

Carol Dweck puzzle study

90% of kids who were praised for working hard chose difficult puzzles afterward
Intelligence-praised kids chose easier ones
Then all kids were given difficult puzzles, then all given easy puzzles.
Work hard kids did 30% better than they had initially scored, intelligence kids did 20% worse than their initial score.

5

primacy effect

info first is more influential

6

recency effect

info last is most influential

7

six persuasion principles

authority
liking
social proof
reciprocity
consistency
scarcity

8

authority (6)

people defer to credible experts

9

liking (6)

people respond more affirmatively to those they like

10

social proof (6)

people allow the example of others to validate how they think, feel, and act

11

reciprocity (6)

people feel obligated to repay in kind what they've received

12

consistency (6)

people tend to honor their public commitments

13

scarcity (6)

people prize what's scarce

14

personal vs media influence

two-step flow: media opinion leaders to rank and file

15

generational explanation

attitudes older people adopted when they were young persist through life largely unchanged

16

group

two or more people interacting with each other and influencing each other, develop us-and-them mentality

17

Why form groups?

inclusion
affection
control (the need to guide the group by organizing and maintaining processes)

18

social facilitation

tendency to perform better due to the presence of others

19

crowding

the presence of many others
When others are present, people are more physically aroused, leads to a good performance.
Mere presence of others leads to an evaluation apprehension, whether you’re participating or not

20

easy task w/people

increased performance

21

hard task w/people

decreased performance

22

Gardner study

200 undergrad students, all asked to identify favorite and non-favorite character
Dependent variable: realness of the character, liking of the character
80% chose human characters
15% chose cartoon characters
Participants their favorite character to be more real than non-favorite character
Participants saw the human character to be more real than cartoon character
Study 2: participants given a private cubicle to work in with picture of participant’s favorite character that they chose in Study 1
Control group: neutral character picture
Dependent variable: each participant asked to perform a word-copying task with dominant and nondominant hand
Favorite character group: performed better on dominant hand (copied more words), performed worse on non-dominant hand (compared to control group performance)
When the task is easy, social facilitation occurs. When the task is hard, social inhibition occurs. The presence of others doesn’t even need to be a real person.

23

to test social facilitation/inhibition

presence of others
evaluation apprehension
difficulty in task
physical arousal

24

reasons to social loaf

contribution won't be evaluated or considered
team members feel that the task or team isn't important
person feels under appreciated within team or group
the presence of others causes relaxation instead of arousal
task isn't challenging

25

deindividuation

doing together what we wouldn't do alone (Lucifer effect)

26

group size for deindividuation

starts at 5

27

physical anonymity

trick-or-treaters take more candy when they're in a group
Zimbardo study: like Milgram study but with hoods
cyberbullying
Douglas and McCartney: internet chat group study

28

to have deindividuation

physical anonymity
arousing and distracting activities
diminished self-awareness

29

explaining group polarization

informational influence
normative influence

30

groupthink

reaching a consensus without really testing or evaluating ideas

31

to have groupthink

illusion of invulnerability
belief in inherent morality of the group (whatever the group decides must be the ethical and proper choice)

32

preventing groupthink

provide an open climate
critical evaluators
avoid insulation
have a devil's advocate

33

influence of the minority

consistency
self-confidence
defections from the majority

34

task leadership

organize work, set standards, focus on achieving goals, leaders are assertive and autonomous

35

social leadership

focus on teamwork, meeting conflict, being there for emotional support

36

transformational leadership

leaders are fiery, use fire to achieve goals

37

characteristics of great leaders

integrity/moral character
honesty
modesty
humbleness
extreme persistence

38

characteristics of dangerous leaders

devaluation of others, intolerant of criticism—will take steps to suppress dissent, grandiose sense of national entitlement

39

prejudice (affect)

negative prejudgement of a group and its members

40

stereotype (cognitive)

oversimplified conceptions/image of a particular group

41

discrimination (behavior)

behavior that stems from prejudice — racism, sexism

42

racial prejudice

White americans estimated 44% of their peers to be high in prejudice, but only 14% gave themselves the same score