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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (231):
1

Cell Theory

Every living thing is made of cells: cannot be proved/disproved because there isn't access to every living thing

2

Mycology

Study of fungi: mushrooms and related forms

3

Bryology

Study of bryophytes: mosses and related forms

4

Levels of study (9)

-molecules
-organelles
-cells
-tissues
-organs
-individual organism
-population
-community
-ecosystem

5

Population

Same kind, same location

6

Community

Very diverse, many kinds, one location

7

Ecosystem

Made by community and environment, varies by choice
Ex. log, forrest, Earth

8

Chloroplasts are

Organelles

9

Tissues can be told apart because

The cells that make them up are similar

10

Leaves, stems, and roots are

Organs

11

Ecosystems change due to (6) things:

-temperature*
-moisture*
-topography (mountains, flat, etc)
-human/animal influence
-disturbance factors (floods, volcanoes)
-time

12

When was Earth formed?

4.6 billion years ago

13

When was the formation of life?

3.8 billion years ago

14

When was the first evidence of fossilization?

3.5 billion years ago

15

When did photosynthesis begin and the atmosphere begin to change? (range)

2.5-1.8 billion years ago

16

When were the first Eukaryotic cells formed?

1 billion years ago

17

When were the first multicellular organisms?

750 million years ago

18

When was the invasion of land by plants?

460 million years ago

19

When did the first flowering plants appear?

160 million years ago

20

When did agriculture develop?

12,000 years ago

21

What was most likely the first terrestrial organism?

Algae, no fossils

22

Most life was formed where?

Water

23

1 millimeter is = to how many micrometers?

1,000 micrometers

24

How thick is 1,000 micrometers?

About the thickness of a dime

25

How big is a cell?

1 micrometer

26

Who is credited with "discovering" cells and in what year?

Hooke, 1966 ish

27

Which microscope increases magnification as light passes through a series of transparent lenses made of glass?

Light microscope

28

What can a light microscope do?

Distinguish organelles

29

What are the two types of light microscopes and their magnification?

Compound, 1500x and Dissecting, 30x

30

Which microscope produces a beam of electrons when high-voltage electricity passes through a wire?

Electron Microscope

31

What are the two types of electron microscopes and their magnification?

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), 200,000x with thin material and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), 10,000x 3D

32

Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and are typically smaller
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus (mostly) and membrane bound organelles

33

What does the cell wall do?

Surrounds protoplasts

34

What are protoplasts?

All living cell components bound by the plasma membrane

35

How much room does a vacuole take up?

Most of the interior and squeezes the organelles to the sides

36

What increased efficiency in cell communication

Small cells, more surface area touching

37

What material is the cell wall structures from, and what is another example of it?

Cellulose, cotton

38

What are two characteristics of cellulose?

Strong and fibrous

39

What other materials help structure the cell wall?

Hemicellulose, pectin, glycoproteins

40

What is considered the mortar that holds bricks together?

Middle Lamella

41

When is middle lamella produced?

When new cell walls are formed

42

Secondary walls are derived from what?

Primary walls and lignin

43

What is Lignin?

Secondary growth, makes plants larger and harder
Ex. Lettuce vs an Oak. Oak has much more lignin

44

How do cells communicate?

Fluids and dissolved liquids/substances can pass through primary walls in gaps

45

What are the gaps/tunnels through the cell wall which cells communicate called?

Plasmodesmata

46

Which component of the cell has a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins?

Plasma Membrane

47

What component is bound by two membranes and has structurally complex pores that occupy 1/3 of the surface area?

Nucleus

48

What does nucleoplasm look like?

Short fibers

49

What does the Endoplasmic Reticulum do?

Facilitates cellular communication and material channeling

50

What does the Endoplasmic Reticulum look like?

Enclosed space consisting of a network of flattening sacs and tubes forming channels throughout the cytoplasm

51

What happens in the Rough ER and what does it look like?

Protein synthesis, Ribosomes are distributed on the outer surface
Ex. backpacks on a table

52

What happens in the Smooth ER and what does it look like?

Lipid Secretion, devoid of Ribosomes

53

What are Ribosomes composed of?

Two subunits made of RNA and proteins

54

What is another name for Dictyosomes?

Gogli bodies

55

What do Dictyosomes look like?

A stack of pancakes

56

What is the most conspicuous plastid?

Chloroplasts

57

What do each chloroplast contain?

Stroma and Grana

58

What is Stoma?

Enzyme filled liquid

59

What is Grana?

Stack of thylakoids

60

What to thylakoids contain and where?

Chlorophyll in the membrane

61

What chemical rxn occurs in the granum?

Photosynthesis

62

What color are chloroplasts?

Green

63

What color are Chromoplasts?

Red/orange
Ex. Tomato/pepper

64

What color are Leucoplasts?

Clear
Ex. Potato

65

Mitochondria is the __________ of the cell

Powerhouse

66

What does the Mitochondria do?

Releases energy produced from cellular respiration

67

What are the folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria called?

Cristae

68

What do the cristae do?

Increase surface area available to enzymes in the matrix fluid

69

What can take up to 90% of the cell volume?

Central Vacuole bound by the vacuolar membrane

70

What is the vacuolar membrane called?

Tonoplast

71

What substance helps maintain pressure in the cell and contains what?

Cell sap, water-soluble pigments

72

An intricate network of microtubules and microfilaments

Cytoskeleton

73

What does a microtubule do?

Controls the addition of cellulose to the cell wall
Ex. The scaffolding of a house

74

What do microfilaments do?

Play a major role in the contraction and movements of cells in multicellular animals
Ex. Most plants (oaks) do not have the ability to move

75

What is another name for Cytoplasmic streaming?

Cyclosis

76

What is Cyclosis?

Movement inside the cell

77

Cell division is a process also referred to as

The Cell Cycle

78

Interphase has how many parts and what are they?

Three: G1, S, G2

79

What does the G1 phase do?

Increases in size

80

What does the S phase do?

DNA replication

81

What does the G2 phase do?

The mitochondria divide and microtubules are produced

82

What is the other part of the cell cycle besides interphase?

Mitosis

83

How many parts are there in mitosis?

Four: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

84

What does mitosis produce?

Two daughter cells that are exact copies (except in rare cases)

85

Where does reproduction occur in plants?

Meristem

86

What happens in prophase?

-chromosomes condense
-nuclear envelope disappears
-spindle fibers develop

87

How many parts of a chromosome is a chromatid?

Two

88

What happens in metaphase?

-chromosomes line up at center
-spindle fibers attach

89

What happens in anaphase?

-sister chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite poles
-spindles shorten

90

What happens in telophase?

-opposite of prophase
-cell plate appears

91

What is a centromere?

Ex. Everyone is wearing a belt and has to put the buckle on the floor, the buckles are the centromere

92

How are plant tissues able to be identified?

By groups of cells that are the same structure and function (they look alike and are roughly the same size)

93

How many Meristematic tissues are there and what happens in the meristem?

Three: Apical, Lateral, Intercalary. Reproduction!

94

What is a meristem?

A permanent region of active cell division

95

Where is the Apical meristem located?

In the tips of roots and shoots (at the ends)

96

What does the apical meristem do?

It increases length to make the plant and its roots taller

97

Production of new cells by the apical meristem is what kind of growth?

Primary

98

Examples of primary meristems are

protoderm, ground meristem and procambium

99

Where is the protoderm?

On the outside, as a covering, like skin-- epidermis

100

Where is the ground meristem?

In the middle acting as a fill-in-- produces tissues composed of parenchyma

101

Where is the procambium?

In the middle because it is vascular-- produces primary xylem and phloem cells

102

What does the Lateral meristem do?

Produces secondary growth

103

What are the two Lateral meristems

Vascular cambium and cork cambium

104

What does the vascular cambium do?

Produces secondary vascular tissue

105

What does the cork cambium do?

Produces new covering (bark)

106

What is the difference between simple and complex tissues?

Simple tissue deals with and has one type of cell, while complex has multiple cells/tissues

107

Name three simple tissues

Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma

108

What does parenchyma do/look like?

Reproductive and thin, like bubbles

109

What does collenchyma do/look like?

Reproductive and thick on the corners, stringy (celery)

110

What does sclerenchyma do/look like?

Thick tough walls, dead when mature and fully functioning, contains lignin

111

Name two types or parenchyma and define then

-Aerenchyma: lots of air spaces
-Chlorenchyma: contains chloroplasts

112

What does collenchyma do?

It contains a living cytoplast and may live for period of time providing flexible temporary support

113

Name two types of sclerenchyma and define them

-Sclereids: stone cells, any shape with lumen filled with lignin
-Fibers: elongated, contain lumen, act as support

114

Name three complex tissues

Xylem, phloem, epidermis

115

What does the xylem do?

Main conducting tissue for water and minerals absorbed by the root

116

Types of xylem

-vessels, long tubes open at each end, major evolutionary step
-Tracheids, tapered at ends with pits
-Rays, allow for lateral conduction

117

What do pits do in tracheids?

They allow water passage between cells

118

Which came first, the vessel or the tracheid?

The tracheid

119

What does the torus do in a pit?

It controls water/mineral flow in and out on the cell

120

What does the phloem do?

Conducts dissolved food materials produced by photosynthesis throughout the plant, sugar and food movement

121

What is a Sieve Tube member?

Large, cylindrical cells that only have a cytoplasm

122

What is a Sieve plate?

A porous region in the Sieve tube, looks like a shower drain

123

What are companion cells?

Narrowed, tapered, nucleus of companion cell directs that cell and the sieve tube member cell

124

What is the epidermis?

Outermost cell layer like skin, one cell thick

125

What does the epidermis secrete?

A fatty substance called cutin on outer walls to prevent water loss

126

Root epidermal cells produce what?

Root hairs

127

What borders the stomata in leaves

Guard cells

128

What are trichomes?

Plant hairs

129

What is the point of having trichomes?

To protect from insects

130

Secretory cells can function in one of two ways:

Individually or as a secretory tissue

131

What are some examples or secretory tissues/cells?

Nectar, citrus oil, mucilage or glandular (waste product), latex (milk weed)

132

What does the periderm make up?

The outer bark

133

What is the periderm made up of?

Cork cells, and suberin that has been secreted into the walls from the cytoplasm

134

What is a lenticel?

Cork cambium loosely arranged around pockets of parenchyma (holes in the bark so you can breathe)

135

What are aerial roots?

Above ground roots

136

Name two major types or roots

-Fibrous root system: monocotyledonous (monocot)
----grasses, many root
-Taproot system: dicotyledonous (dicot)
----carrot, one main root

137

Root development begins with what?

Seed germination

138

What is the radicle?

The lower portion of the embryo

139

What is the root cap, what type of cell is it made of, what does it look like, what are the functions?

Thimble-shaped mass or parenchyma cells covering each root tip and it protects from damage to the tissue and functions in gravity perception

140

Where is the region of cell division?

The apical meristem (center of the root tip) at the edge of the inverted cup-shaped zone

141

What happens at the region of elongation?

The cells become several times their original length

142

What is the region of maturation?

Cells differentiate into various cell types, root hairs form, absorb water and minerals, thin cuticle

143

What is the cortex?

Cells that store food

144

What does the cortex contain?

The endodermis where the cell walls impregnated with superin to form casparian strips

145

What do Caspian strips do?

They force water and dissolved substances coming and going through the plasma membrane of the endodermal cells

146

Where is the vascular cylinder

Inside the endodermis

147

Where is the pericycle and what does it originate?

Directly inside the inner boundary of the endodermis and it originates lateral roots

148

What is the difference between determinate and indeterminate?

Determinate growth stops at a certain size, whereas indeterminate growth continuously adds new tissues

149

What kind of roots are sweet potatoes?

Food storage roots

150

What kind of roots are the pumpkin family?

Water storage roots

151

What kind of roots are fruit trees (that have buds that develop into suckers)

Propagative roots

152

What is a pneumatophore?

Spongy roots that extend above the waters surface (enhance gas exchange)
Ex. Lily

153

What are aerial roots?

Roots not is the soil (AIRial)
Ex. Orchids

154

What are contractile roots and what is an example?

They pull the plant deeper into the soil
Ex. Lily bulbs

155

What is a buttress root do and what does it look like?

It helps stabilize the tree, usually tropical and it looks like a wall

156

What are parasitic roots and what is an example?

They are plants that have no chlorophyll and are dependent of chlorophyll-bearing plants for nutrition
Ex. Dodder, Cancer root

157

What does Mycorrhizae form?

A mutualistic association with plant roots
A fungus is able to absorb phosphorus and other nutrients to give to the plant is exchange for photosynthesized sugars (food)

158

What are the two types of Mycorrhizae? Examples?

Ectomycorrhizae (outside the plant)
Ex. mushrooms
Endomycorrhizae (inside the cell)
Ex. Invade cell

159

What is important about the root nodules in a plant like clover?

There is a bacteria that produces enzymes that convert nitrogen into nitrates etc. Nitrogen-Fixing bacteria

160

What is the taxonomic name for the Legume Family?

Fabaceae

161

Through what interactions is soil formed? (6)

-cliimate
-parent material
-topography
-vegetation
-living organisms
-time

162

What does the solid portion of the soil consist of?

Minerals and organic matter

163

What are pore spaces?

Space between solid particles usually filled with air or water

164

What is Horizon A?

Topsoil
Dark, rich, and contains the most organic matter

165

What is Horizon B?

Subsoil
More clay, lighter in color

166

What is Horizon C?

Mineral soil
Not broken down into smaller particles

167

How do climates define soils?

Deserts: little weathering due to low rainfall
Grasslands: Moderate rainfall and well-developed soils
Rainforests: Excess rain and nutrients quick leave the soil

168

How does topography affect soils?

Steep areas can erode from wind or water
Flat areas can flood and contain little oxygen

169

What is the most desirable loam consist of?

40% silt, 40% sand, and 20% clay

170

What is wrong with coarse soils?

They drain water too quickly

171

What is wrong with dense soils?

They have poor drainage

172

In the upper 30 cm of agricultural soil, how much of the total soil weight do living organism make up?

1/1000th of the total weight

173

What do bacteria and fungus do in the soil?

Decompose organic material

174

What gives soil its dark color?

Humus, partially decomposed organic matter

175

What is hygroscopic water?

Water that is physically bound to soil particles and is unavailable to plants

176

What is gravitational water?

Water that drains out of pore spaces after is rains

177

What is capillary water?

Water held against the force of gravity in soil pores

178

What is field capacity?

Water remaining in the soil after drainage by gravity

179

What is permanent wilting point?

The rate of water absorption is insufficient for plant needs

180

What is available water?

Soil water between field capacity and the permanent wilting point

181

What is alkalinity?

It causes some minerals to become less available, add nitrogenous fertilizers

182

What does acidity inhabit?

The growth of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, add calcium or magnesium

183

Where is canopy soil found?

Temperate rain forests and tropical rain forests

184

What are the main differences between canopy and ground soil?

Canopy:
85% organic matter
Higher P
Lower Ca, MG, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al

Ground:
10% organic matter
Lower P
Higher Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al

185

What is the difference between woody and herbaceous?

Woody: hard, secondary growth (Oak)
Herbaceous: soft (Dandelion)

186

What are most annuals?

Green and herbaceous and split monocot and dicot

187

Perennials are mostly

herbaceous

188

Herbaceous dicots have what?

Discrete vascular bundles of xylem and phloem

189

Alternate vs opposite leaf arrangements

Alternate means every other and opposite means directly across

190

Leaves attach at what?

A node

191

Between leaves (nodes) is what?

Internodes

192

What is a blade?

A flattened plant of the leaf

193

What is the blade attached to the twig by? (The little stem)

Petiole

194

What is the angle between the petiole and stem called?

The Axil

195

What is the bud located at the axil called?

Axillary bud

196

What is the bud at the tip called?

Terminal bud

197

Deciduous trees and shrubs have what?

Dormant axillary buds with leaf scars after leaves fall

198

What protects the apical meristem before the beginning of the growing season?

Bus scales and leaf primordia

199

The three tissues that the apical meristem develops are

The protoderm, pro cambium, and the ground meristem

200

What two things does the ground meristem include?

The pith and the cortex

201

What is the leaf primodia?

It is like a covering that acts as protection for the apical meristem before growing season

202

Cells produced by the vascular cambium become what?

Components of the secondary xylem and secondary phloem

203

What kind of plants are have the cork cambium?

Woody dicots because the cork cambium produces cork cells and phelloderm cells which is essentially bark

204

How many cells thick is the vascular cambium?

One

205

Which cell is produced by the vascular cambium and is pushed toward the outside?

Phloem

206

Which cell is produced by the vascular cambium and is pushed toward the inside?

Xylem

207

What is an annual ring?

One years growth of xylem

208

Large vessel elements of secondary xylem are called?

Spring wood

209

Smaller and fewer vessel elements of the secondary xylem are called?

Summer wood

210

What do vascular rays do and look like?

Lines across the rings and function in lateral conductions of nutrients and water

211

Mature bark can consist of what?

Alternating layers of crushed phloem and cork

212

What is heartwood?

Older, darker wood at the center of the trunk/stem

213

What is sapwood?

Lighter, still-functioning xylem closest to the cambium

214

Hardwood includes

Tracheas and vessel elements

215

Softwood includes

Tracheids, no fibers and vessel elements
Ex. cone-bearing trees

216

What are bulbs?

Large buds surrounded by numerous fleshy leaves, with a small stem at the lower end

217

Large buds surrounded by numerous fleshy leaves, with a small stem at the lower end

Bulbs

218

Corms

Resemble bulbs, but composed almost entirely of stem tissue

219

Resemble bulbs, but composed almost entirely of stem tissue

Corms

220

Cladophylls

Flattened, leaf-life stems

221

Flattened, leaf-life stems

Cladophylls

222

Thorns

Modified stems

223

Modified stems

Thorns

224

Tendrils

Vines

225

Vines

Tendrils

226

Rhizomes

Horizontal stems that grow below-ground

227

Horizontal stems that grow below-ground

Rhizomes

228

Runners

Horizontal stems that generally grow along surface

229

Horizontal stems that generally grow along surface

Runners

230

Stolons

Produced beneath the surface of the ground and tend to grow in different directions

231

Produced beneath the surface of the ground and tend to grow in different directions

Stolons