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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (218):
1

What is the common name for the Phylum Ascomycota?

Sac Fungi

2

What Phylum does sac fungi belong to?

Ascomycota

3

What group are truffles a member of?

Ascomycota/sac fungi

4

How do truffles reproduce?

Asexually by means of spores

5

What in conidia?

Spores that truffles produce on conidiophores for reproduction

6

Name two edible ascomycotas

Murrels and truffles

7

Yeast goes through what to aid in baked good and wine preparation?

Fermentation

8

Name and describe two plant diseases

Dutch Elm Disease:
fungal disease that wiped out the majority of American elms
Chestnut Blight: same

9

What is the common name for Basidiomycetes?

Club Fungi

10

What is the scientific name for club fungi?

Basidiomycetes

11

How do basidiomycetes reproduce?

Sexually where spores are produced at the tips of swollen hyphae that look like clubs

12

Name 8 different groups of Basidiomycetes

-Agarics
-Puffballs
-Earth Stars
-Boletes
-Polypores
-Stinkhorns
-Chanterelles
-Birds Nest Fungi

13

Do basidiomycetes reproduce asexually?

Possible but very infrequently

14

What are gills?

The "lines" of the underside of a "mushroom"

15

What is a fairy ring?

Fungi that grow in a large circle

16

What are deuteromycetes?

Imperfect Fungi

17

How do deuteromycetes reproduce?

A sexual stage has not been observed but by conidia

18

How are deuteromycetes grouped together?

In artificial phylums

19

What is the global biodiversity?

Unknown but very high

20

What does a lichen consist of?

Fungi and algae associated in a spongy thallus

21

What is the fungal part of the lichen called?

Mycobiont

22

What is the algal part of the lichen called?

Photobiont

23

90% of all lichen species have how many genera and genus?

3 genera of green algae and 1 genus of cyanobacteria

24

How are lichens identified?

By their fungus component

25

What are two characteristics of lichens?

Grow slowly and live long

26

What kind of substance in a lichen thallus allows them to withstand wet and dry periods?

Gelatinous

27

What are the three growth forms of a lichen?

Crustose, Foliose, Fruticose

28

What kind of lichen is attached or embedded in their substrate?

Crustose

29

What kind of lichen contains leaf-like thalli which overlap?

Foliose

30

What kind of lichen resembles miniature upright shrubs or hang from branches?

Fruticose

31

Which type of lichen needs to be observed on the rock place it grows because it is hard to remove?

Crustose

32

How many layers makes up a lichen thallus?

3 or 4

33

What are the layers in a lichen thallus?

-Upper Cortex: protection
-Algal Layer: algal cells
-Medulla: hyphae
-Lower cortex: covered with rhizines

34

What is a rhizine?

A rootlike filament or hair growing from stems of mosses or lichens: rhizoid

35

What are two bad things about lichens?

They are incredibly sensitive to pollution and the degrade rocks, monuments etc with lichen acid

36

What is a lichen desert?

A place high in pollution (Sulfur Dioxide, radiation)

37

What organism has antibiotic properties and can act as a food supplement?

Lichens

38

What are bryophytes?

Mosses and related forms: liverworts and hornworts as well

39

If moss grows on one side of a tree in the Northern hemisphere, which way is North and how would you know?

The Northern side is the moss side and because the other side is dried out by the sun

40

How many species of bryophytes are there?

23,000

41

Where does the habitat of a bryophyte range from?

Sea level up to 5,500m or more

42

Bryophytes of all phyla often have what associated with their rhizoids?

Mycorrhizal fungi

43

What do bryophytes lack?

True xylem and phloem

44

Do bryophytes exhibit alteration of generations?

Yes

45

What organism always has two rows of partially overlapping "leaves" that contain oil bodies?

Leafy liverworts

46

A left liverwort produces these in a cup-like structures

Archegonia and antheridia

47

Archegonia is "female" or "male"

female

48

Antheridia is "female" or "male"

male

49

A germinating spore in a leafy liverwort will produce

Protonema

50

What organism has a thick thallus that forks dichotomously as it grows and consists of several types of tissues?

Thalloid Liverwort

51

What organism contains Bessie's Garden?

Thalloid Liverwort

52

What structure looks like a miniature green-black rod?

Mature sporophyte of a hornwort

53

How many species of Hornworts are there?

About 100

54

Thalli often have pores and cavities filled with what?

Mucilage that often contain nitrogen fixing bacteria

55

How many species of mosses are there?

About 15,000

56

What are the three classes of mosses?

-Peat mosses
-True mosses
-Rock mosses

57

Why is "leaves" in quotes when talking about mosses?

Because there is no mesophyll tissue, stomata, or veins

58

Describe the blades of mosses

One cell thick, never divided, form in three ranks, spiral

59

What makes (peat) mosses hold water so well?

They have two types of cells: chlorophyll-bearing and transparent water storage cells that swell

60

Peat mosses are good for what?

Soil conditioning, wound dressing, fuel

61

Name an organism that acts as a good packing material and indicator of surface water?

Moss

62

What is the common name for Phylum Psilotophyta?

Whisk Fern

63

What is the common name for Phylum Lycophyta?

Club Moss also known as ground pines, spike mosses, and quillworts

64

What is the common name for Phylum Equisetophyta?

Horsetails

65

What is the common name for Phylum Polypodiophyta?

Ferns

66

What does a whisk fern look like?

Small green whisk brooms

67

What organism has sporophytes that consist almost entirely of dichotomously forking aerial stems?

Whisk fern

68

What does a whisk fern not have?

Leaves or roots

69

What are the two major genera of the phylum lycophyta?

Lycopodium and Selaginella

70

What organism is known to have TRUE roots and stems?

Lycophyta

71

What are ground pines?

Lycopodium, grow on forest floor and look like tiny xmas trees that develop from branching rhizomes

72

What is a spike moss?

Selaginella, abundant in tropics, branch freely, have a ligule, heterospory

73

What is a ligule?

Like a little tongue on the upper surface of leaves

74

What is a quillwort?

Isoetes, submerged in water part of the year, microphylls arranged in tight spiral, legumes toward leaf base, corms with vascular cambium

75

Where are microphylls found?

In whorls at nodes

76

Horsetails are also known as

Scouring Rushes

77

How many species of horsetails are there among all continents?

About 25

78

What kind of leaf arrangements to the branches form in?

Whorls

79

What plant has significant silica deposits and where?

Horsetails: inner wall of stems epidermal cells

80

What is a collar?

Where leaves fused at their base on an equisetophyta

81

What causes horsetails to have a hollow stem center?

The pith breaks down

82

Why phylum does a fern belong to?

Phylum polypodiophyta

83

How many species of ferns are there?

11,000

84

Fern size?

1cm to 25m

85

What are fronds?

Fern leaves that are megaphylls
(typically divided into smaller segaments)

86

What are ferns used for?

-house plants
-rhizomes = food
-folk medicine
-fronds = thatching houses

87

What is a fossil?

Any recognizable prehistoric organic object preserved from past geological ages

88

What are good things for fossilization?

Quick burial and hard parts

89

What are different types of fossilization?

Molds, casts, compressions, imprints

90

If air spaces remain, what kind of fossilization is happening?

Mold

91

If silica sills the spaces, what kind of fossilization is happening?

Cast

92

When a thin outline is the only thing left what kind of fossilization has taken place?

Compression

93

What kind of plants are gymnosperms?

Conifers, usually

94

What does the term gymnosperm refer to?

Exposed seeds

95

Where is the female gametophyte produced?

Inside an ovule

96

What are the four living phyla of gymnosperms?

-Phylum Pinophyta
-Phylum Ginkgophyta
-Phylum Cycadophyta
-Phylum Gnetophyta

97

What does the phylum pinophyta include?

Conifers/pines

98

What is the largest conifer genus?

Pinus

99

How many species does pinophyta include?

Over 100 living species

100

What is the worlds oldest known living organism?

Bristlecone Pine

101

What do pine leaves look like and how are they arranged?

Needlelike: clusters in 2, 3, 5 bundles, rarely 1

102

What is a cluster of pine leaves called?

Fascicle

103

What is a fascicle?

A cluster of pine needles that form a cylindrical rod

104

What is resin and where does it develop?

Amber, antiseptic, sticky, develops in the mesophyll

105

What does most gymnosperm wood consist of? What is it missing?

Tracheas, no vessel members of fibers

106

Most conifer roots are associated with

Mycorrhizal fungi

107

Most conifers are found where?

Up globe and up mtn

108

Is a pollen cone male or female?

Male

109

Is a seed cone male or female?

Female

110

Megasporangium is associated with

Female/archegonium/seed cones

111

Microsporangium is associated with

Male/antheridium/pollen cones

112

More Pinophyta

Bald Cypress, Yew, Podocarps

113

The common name for Ginkgo is

Maidenhair trees

114

How many living ginkgo species are there?

1

115

Describe ginkgo leaves

Notched, broad, fan shaped
produced in a spiral on short slow-growing spurs
No midrib or prominent veins
Dichotomous

116

What organism looks like a cross between a tree fern and palm?

Cycad

117

How and where do cycads grow? Appearance?

Slow and in the tropics with tall unbranched trees with a crown of large pinnately divided leaves

118

How is a cycad pollinated?

With beetles instead of wind

119

What organism is pollenated by beetles?

Cycads

120

Name an organism that is unique to the gymnosperms and have vessels in the xylem

Gnetophytes

121

What genus has 70 known species that are joint firs in the gnetophyta phylum?

Ephedra

122

What are the three genus' in the Gnetophytes?

Ephedra and Welwitschia and Gnetum

123

Where do Gnetophytes occur?

Tropics

124

Where do welwitschia occur?

Dessert SW Africa

125

How many species are in the welwitschia genus?

1

126

How many leaves does a Welwitschia plant have?

Two throughout their life

127

How much rainfall does SW Africa get on average?

2.5cm

128

What are some uses for gymnosperms (conifers)?

-Edible seeds
-crates, boxes matchsticks
-cheap furniture
-telephone poles
-fuel
-pulpwood
-ornamentals
-pharmaceuticals
-turpentine and resin

129

What is a good use for red spruce?

Violins

130

What can you find on a moist fallen log?

Cup fungus/ascomycetes

131

Where can truffles be found?

Pine forests

132

What do flying squirrels and female pigs have to do with anything?

They eat truffles/hypogeus fungi

133

A murrel fungus is also known as

A button mushroom

134

What mushrooms can you eat raw?

Common, cook rest

135

How do fungus reproduce?

Spores

136

How many trees in Eastern North America were Chestnut?

40%

137

What are basidiomycetes?

Larger fungi

138

Name a gilled organism

Agarics

139

What do stinkhorns smell like and why?

Rotting flesh because it attracts flies that spread the spores

140

What fungi is hallucinogenic?

Agarics

141

What country loves fungi?

Thailand

142

What area are the spores in for a fungus?

Ascis

143

What fungus has the spores on the outside?

Basidium

144

How many basidiospore are there per basidium?

4

145

How many ascospores are there per ascus?

8

146

If you come in contact with the agarics west coast fatal fungi poison what will help you get better?

Liver transplant

147

How do you make a spore print?

On paper cut the cap off and the spores will pop out

148

Give an example of an ectomycorrhizal fungi

Bolics

149

Does a chanterelle have ridges or gilles?

Ridges

150

What are other names for the polypore shelf fungus?

Bracket, conk, sulfur shell

151

What do stinkhorns produce?

Gelatinous mass

152

When can you eat a lawyers wig agarics?

When it is young

153

How do the spores get out of the Birds Nest fungus? What is the mechanism called?

Raindrops flick them out: splash cup mechanism

154

What do nematodes have lots of?

Nitrogen

155

What is fuzzy and decomposes leaves?

Hyphomecetes

156

What is an organic sponge?

Lichen

157

What do caribou eat?

Fruticose lichens

158

The body of a lichen is a

Thallus

159

The mycobiont part of a lichen is what?

Ascomycetes

160

Fruticose lichens look like

an old mans beard

161

What is reindeer moss?

Fruticose lichen

162

What part of a lichen absorbs?

Medulla

163

How old is the oldest lichen fossil?

400 million

164

Pittsburg is

A lichen desert

165

Name a self medicating organism

Lichen

166

What were the first land green plants?

Mosses

167

What are land green plants?

Mosses, grasses, trees, etc

168

In the Southern Hemisphere what side of a tree does the moss grow on?

South

169

Are hornworts common or no?

No

170

What is the simplest and most abundant bryophyte?

Leafy Liverwort

171

In a sporophyte, what produces spores?

Capsule

172

Is the sporophyte or gametophyte dominant in bryophytes?

Gametophyte

173

In bryophytes does the male or female thallus have a splash cup?

Male

174

In bryophytes does the male or female thallus look like a palm tree?

Female

175

What is a gemma cup?

Splash cup for liverworts aka Jimmy cup

176

What looks like a coke bottle with a marble in it?

Archegonia

177

Peat mosses can absorb how many times their weight in water?

30x

178

What are some uses for peat moss?

Diapers, antibiotic, dried and burned

179

What is a protonema?

The early algal stages of bryotphytes

180

What is a seta?

Flagpole made of tissue with a salt shaker top

181

What system traps water for sperm to swim in?

Paraphysis

182

Where can sphagnum, peat, and bognum be found?

Tropics, high mountain tops, AK

183

Sphagnum bogs do what to their own environment, what is it like?

They make it super acidic so they can't decompose and (bodies) can be well preserved

184

Gametophyte: haploid or diploid?

Haploid

185

Sporophyte: haploid or diploid?

Diploid

186

Is the sporophyte or gametophyte dominant in ferns?

Sporophyte

187

Where are club mosses found?

App mtns

188

What fern is most common in AR?

Christmas/evergreen fern

189

Name an amphibious plant

Quillworts: submerged and on land

190

Horsetails have what that protects them from herbivores?

Silica/glass

191

What has self-peeling spores?

Equisetophyta/horsetails

192

What made up coal deposits forests?

Lycopods and equistophyta

193

A small fern is how tall?

Less than 1 ft

194

A large fern is how tall?

Greater than 1 ft

195

How big is the cinnamon fern?

5 ft

196

What is a monkey tail or a fiddle head?

A fern frond

197

What is carcenogenous?

It means they cause ovarian cancer like cigs and ferns are

198

What do house plants do?

Refresh the air

199

How are ferns identified?

By their fronds and the back/bottom where their reproductive structures are

200

What are the reproductive structures on a fern called?

Indusiums

201

An ovule becomes what?

A seed

202

What is an integument?

Covering

203

Gymnosperms: homo or hetero?

Homo

204

Mickey mouse

Microgametophytes in gymnosperms

205

Female ginkgo are bad because

They are a skin irritant and smell bad

206

Male ginkgos produce

pollen

207

San Diego zoo and FL are good places to see what?

Cycads

208

What kind of beetles pollinate cycads?

Weevils

209

How much did the largest cycad cone weigh?

100lbs

210

Gnetophytes evolved to have what?

tissues, vessels

211

Where is Mt Kosciusko?

Australia

212

Why is Mt Kosciusko important?

It has watermelon snow

213

What is the name of a bottle tree and where is it found?

Baobab: Australia and Africa

214

Are there herbaceous conifers?

No

215

What is true of all land green plants?

They have similar life cycles

216

What are the two stages of the life cycle?

Sporophyte and gametophyte

217

Life cycle

Gametophytes produce-> gametes in archegonia and antheridia-> Sperm travels to egg-> fertilization-> zygote-> sporophyte produces-> spores in sporangium-> meiosis-> Spores germinate to-> gametophytes

218

Sperm needs one of two things to move

Wind or water