Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (218):
What is the common name for the Phylum Ascomycota?
What Phylum does sac fungi belong to?
What group are truffles a member of?
How do truffles reproduce?
Asexually by means of spores
What in conidia?
Spores that truffles produce on conidiophores for reproduction
Name two edible ascomycotas
Murrels and truffles
Yeast goes through what to aid in baked good and wine preparation?
Name and describe two plant diseases
Dutch Elm Disease:
fungal disease that wiped out the majority of American elms
Chestnut Blight: same
What is the common name for Basidiomycetes?
What is the scientific name for club fungi?
How do basidiomycetes reproduce?
Sexually where spores are produced at the tips of swollen hyphae that look like clubs
Name 8 different groups of Basidiomycetes
-Birds Nest Fungi
Do basidiomycetes reproduce asexually?
Possible but very infrequently
What are gills?
The "lines" of the underside of a "mushroom"
What is a fairy ring?
Fungi that grow in a large circle
What are deuteromycetes?
How do deuteromycetes reproduce?
A sexual stage has not been observed but by conidia
How are deuteromycetes grouped together?
In artificial phylums
What is the global biodiversity?
Unknown but very high
What does a lichen consist of?
Fungi and algae associated in a spongy thallus
What is the fungal part of the lichen called?
What is the algal part of the lichen called?
90% of all lichen species have how many genera and genus?
3 genera of green algae and 1 genus of cyanobacteria
How are lichens identified?
By their fungus component
What are two characteristics of lichens?
Grow slowly and live long
What kind of substance in a lichen thallus allows them to withstand wet and dry periods?
What are the three growth forms of a lichen?
Crustose, Foliose, Fruticose
What kind of lichen is attached or embedded in their substrate?
What kind of lichen contains leaf-like thalli which overlap?
What kind of lichen resembles miniature upright shrubs or hang from branches?
Which type of lichen needs to be observed on the rock place it grows because it is hard to remove?
How many layers makes up a lichen thallus?
3 or 4
What are the layers in a lichen thallus?
-Upper Cortex: protection
-Algal Layer: algal cells
-Lower cortex: covered with rhizines
What is a rhizine?
A rootlike filament or hair growing from stems of mosses or lichens: rhizoid
What are two bad things about lichens?
They are incredibly sensitive to pollution and the degrade rocks, monuments etc with lichen acid
What is a lichen desert?
A place high in pollution (Sulfur Dioxide, radiation)
What organism has antibiotic properties and can act as a food supplement?
What are bryophytes?
Mosses and related forms: liverworts and hornworts as well
If moss grows on one side of a tree in the Northern hemisphere, which way is North and how would you know?
The Northern side is the moss side and because the other side is dried out by the sun
How many species of bryophytes are there?
Where does the habitat of a bryophyte range from?
Sea level up to 5,500m or more
Bryophytes of all phyla often have what associated with their rhizoids?
What do bryophytes lack?
True xylem and phloem
Do bryophytes exhibit alteration of generations?
What organism always has two rows of partially overlapping "leaves" that contain oil bodies?
A left liverwort produces these in a cup-like structures
Archegonia and antheridia
Archegonia is "female" or "male"
Antheridia is "female" or "male"
A germinating spore in a leafy liverwort will produce
What organism has a thick thallus that forks dichotomously as it grows and consists of several types of tissues?
What organism contains Bessie's Garden?
What structure looks like a miniature green-black rod?
Mature sporophyte of a hornwort
How many species of Hornworts are there?
Thalli often have pores and cavities filled with what?
Mucilage that often contain nitrogen fixing bacteria
How many species of mosses are there?
What are the three classes of mosses?
Why is "leaves" in quotes when talking about mosses?
Because there is no mesophyll tissue, stomata, or veins
Describe the blades of mosses
One cell thick, never divided, form in three ranks, spiral
What makes (peat) mosses hold water so well?
They have two types of cells: chlorophyll-bearing and transparent water storage cells that swell
Peat mosses are good for what?
Soil conditioning, wound dressing, fuel
Name an organism that acts as a good packing material and indicator of surface water?
What is the common name for Phylum Psilotophyta?
What is the common name for Phylum Lycophyta?
Club Moss also known as ground pines, spike mosses, and quillworts
What is the common name for Phylum Equisetophyta?
What is the common name for Phylum Polypodiophyta?
What does a whisk fern look like?
Small green whisk brooms
What organism has sporophytes that consist almost entirely of dichotomously forking aerial stems?
What does a whisk fern not have?
Leaves or roots
What are the two major genera of the phylum lycophyta?
Lycopodium and Selaginella
What organism is known to have TRUE roots and stems?
What are ground pines?
Lycopodium, grow on forest floor and look like tiny xmas trees that develop from branching rhizomes
What is a spike moss?
Selaginella, abundant in tropics, branch freely, have a ligule, heterospory
What is a ligule?
Like a little tongue on the upper surface of leaves
What is a quillwort?
Isoetes, submerged in water part of the year, microphylls arranged in tight spiral, legumes toward leaf base, corms with vascular cambium
Where are microphylls found?
In whorls at nodes
Horsetails are also known as
How many species of horsetails are there among all continents?
What kind of leaf arrangements to the branches form in?
What plant has significant silica deposits and where?
Horsetails: inner wall of stems epidermal cells
What is a collar?
Where leaves fused at their base on an equisetophyta
What causes horsetails to have a hollow stem center?
The pith breaks down
Why phylum does a fern belong to?
How many species of ferns are there?
1cm to 25m
What are fronds?
Fern leaves that are megaphylls
(typically divided into smaller segaments)
What are ferns used for?
-rhizomes = food
-fronds = thatching houses
What is a fossil?
Any recognizable prehistoric organic object preserved from past geological ages
What are good things for fossilization?
Quick burial and hard parts
What are different types of fossilization?
Molds, casts, compressions, imprints
If air spaces remain, what kind of fossilization is happening?
If silica sills the spaces, what kind of fossilization is happening?
When a thin outline is the only thing left what kind of fossilization has taken place?
What kind of plants are gymnosperms?
What does the term gymnosperm refer to?
Where is the female gametophyte produced?
Inside an ovule
What are the four living phyla of gymnosperms?
What does the phylum pinophyta include?
What is the largest conifer genus?
How many species does pinophyta include?
Over 100 living species
What is the worlds oldest known living organism?
What do pine leaves look like and how are they arranged?
Needlelike: clusters in 2, 3, 5 bundles, rarely 1
What is a cluster of pine leaves called?
What is a fascicle?
A cluster of pine needles that form a cylindrical rod
What is resin and where does it develop?
Amber, antiseptic, sticky, develops in the mesophyll
What does most gymnosperm wood consist of? What is it missing?
Tracheas, no vessel members of fibers
Most conifer roots are associated with
Most conifers are found where?
Up globe and up mtn
Is a pollen cone male or female?
Is a seed cone male or female?
Megasporangium is associated with
Microsporangium is associated with
Bald Cypress, Yew, Podocarps
The common name for Ginkgo is
How many living ginkgo species are there?
Describe ginkgo leaves
Notched, broad, fan shaped
produced in a spiral on short slow-growing spurs
No midrib or prominent veins
What organism looks like a cross between a tree fern and palm?
How and where do cycads grow? Appearance?
Slow and in the tropics with tall unbranched trees with a crown of large pinnately divided leaves
How is a cycad pollinated?
With beetles instead of wind
What organism is pollenated by beetles?
Name an organism that is unique to the gymnosperms and have vessels in the xylem
What genus has 70 known species that are joint firs in the gnetophyta phylum?
What are the three genus' in the Gnetophytes?
Ephedra and Welwitschia and Gnetum
Where do Gnetophytes occur?
Where do welwitschia occur?
Dessert SW Africa
How many species are in the welwitschia genus?
How many leaves does a Welwitschia plant have?
Two throughout their life
How much rainfall does SW Africa get on average?
What are some uses for gymnosperms (conifers)?
-crates, boxes matchsticks
-turpentine and resin
What is a good use for red spruce?
What can you find on a moist fallen log?
Where can truffles be found?
What do flying squirrels and female pigs have to do with anything?
They eat truffles/hypogeus fungi
A murrel fungus is also known as
A button mushroom
What mushrooms can you eat raw?
Common, cook rest
How do fungus reproduce?
How many trees in Eastern North America were Chestnut?
What are basidiomycetes?
Name a gilled organism
What do stinkhorns smell like and why?
Rotting flesh because it attracts flies that spread the spores
What fungi is hallucinogenic?
What country loves fungi?
What area are the spores in for a fungus?
What fungus has the spores on the outside?
How many basidiospore are there per basidium?
How many ascospores are there per ascus?
If you come in contact with the agarics west coast fatal fungi poison what will help you get better?
How do you make a spore print?
On paper cut the cap off and the spores will pop out
Give an example of an ectomycorrhizal fungi
Does a chanterelle have ridges or gilles?
What are other names for the polypore shelf fungus?
Bracket, conk, sulfur shell
What do stinkhorns produce?
When can you eat a lawyers wig agarics?
When it is young
How do the spores get out of the Birds Nest fungus? What is the mechanism called?
Raindrops flick them out: splash cup mechanism
What do nematodes have lots of?
What is fuzzy and decomposes leaves?
What is an organic sponge?
What do caribou eat?
The body of a lichen is a
The mycobiont part of a lichen is what?
Fruticose lichens look like
an old mans beard
What is reindeer moss?
What part of a lichen absorbs?
How old is the oldest lichen fossil?
A lichen desert
Name a self medicating organism
What were the first land green plants?
What are land green plants?
Mosses, grasses, trees, etc
In the Southern Hemisphere what side of a tree does the moss grow on?
Are hornworts common or no?
What is the simplest and most abundant bryophyte?
In a sporophyte, what produces spores?
Is the sporophyte or gametophyte dominant in bryophytes?
In bryophytes does the male or female thallus have a splash cup?
In bryophytes does the male or female thallus look like a palm tree?
What is a gemma cup?
Splash cup for liverworts aka Jimmy cup
What looks like a coke bottle with a marble in it?
Peat mosses can absorb how many times their weight in water?
What are some uses for peat moss?
Diapers, antibiotic, dried and burned
What is a protonema?
The early algal stages of bryotphytes
What is a seta?
Flagpole made of tissue with a salt shaker top
What system traps water for sperm to swim in?
Where can sphagnum, peat, and bognum be found?
Tropics, high mountain tops, AK
Sphagnum bogs do what to their own environment, what is it like?
They make it super acidic so they can't decompose and (bodies) can be well preserved
Gametophyte: haploid or diploid?
Sporophyte: haploid or diploid?
Is the sporophyte or gametophyte dominant in ferns?
Where are club mosses found?
What fern is most common in AR?
Name an amphibious plant
Quillworts: submerged and on land
Horsetails have what that protects them from herbivores?
What has self-peeling spores?
What made up coal deposits forests?
Lycopods and equistophyta
A small fern is how tall?
Less than 1 ft
A large fern is how tall?
Greater than 1 ft
How big is the cinnamon fern?
What is a monkey tail or a fiddle head?
A fern frond
What is carcenogenous?
It means they cause ovarian cancer like cigs and ferns are
What do house plants do?
Refresh the air
How are ferns identified?
By their fronds and the back/bottom where their reproductive structures are
What are the reproductive structures on a fern called?
An ovule becomes what?
What is an integument?
Gymnosperms: homo or hetero?
Microgametophytes in gymnosperms
Female ginkgo are bad because
They are a skin irritant and smell bad
Male ginkgos produce
San Diego zoo and FL are good places to see what?
What kind of beetles pollinate cycads?
How much did the largest cycad cone weigh?
Gnetophytes evolved to have what?
Where is Mt Kosciusko?
Why is Mt Kosciusko important?
It has watermelon snow
What is the name of a bottle tree and where is it found?
Baobab: Australia and Africa
Are there herbaceous conifers?
What is true of all land green plants?
They have similar life cycles
What are the two stages of the life cycle?
Sporophyte and gametophyte
Gametophytes produce-> gametes in archegonia and antheridia-> Sperm travels to egg-> fertilization-> zygote-> sporophyte produces-> spores in sporangium-> meiosis-> Spores germinate to-> gametophytes