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Flashcards in Final Deck (280):
1

What are seed plants?

Angiosperms

2

When did flowering plants first appear? What period?

160 million years ago during the late Jurassic period

3

What did most botanists hypothesize about primitive flowers?

That they had numerous spirally-arranged parts that weren't fused

4

What makes angiosperms different from gymnosperms?

The angiosperm seeds are contained in a structure

5

What is the structure where seeds are contained called?

Carpel

6

What is the largest and most diverse phylum of the Plant Kingdom?

Angiosperms

7

Are angiosperms heterosporous or homosporous?

Hereosporous

8

Describe a female gametophyte

Wholly enclosed within sporophyte tissue and are reduced to only few cells

9

Describe a male gametophyte

Consist of a germinated pollen grain with three nuclei

10

Give an example of a compound carpel

Tomato, thinner pericarp several ovules

11

Give an example of a simple carpel

Avocado, thicker pericarp, one ovule

12

What is pollination?

The transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma

13

What is fertilization?

The union of an egg and sperm

14

How long can fertilization take place after pollination?

Days, weeks, or months after

15

What color flowers do birds often visit? Smell?

Bright red or yellow, very little odor

16

How do flowers ensure the return of bird-pollinators?

The produce copious amounts of nectar

17

What kind of flowers do bats visit?

Ones that open at night

18

What is a herbaria?

Libraries of dried, pressed plants, algae, fungi arranged and labeled

19

How long can a properly prepared specimen remain in excellent condition?

300+ years

20

What is special about wild ginger?

The flower is located at the base of the plant

21

What does an embryonic primordium develop into?

A bud

22

What is another name for sepals?

Calyx

23

What is another name for petals?

Corolla

24

What are the calyx and corolla together called?

Perianth

25

What does a stamen consist of?

Filament with an anther on top

26

What develops in anthers?

Pollen grains

27

What are stamen attached to?

The receptacle around the base of the pistil

28

What does the pistil consist of?

Stigma, style, ovary

29

What is a Superior Ovary?

Calyx and corolla attached to the receptacle at the base of the ovary

30

What is an Inferior Ovary?

Where the receptacle grows up and around the ovary, calyx and corolla appear to attach on top

31

What is an inflorescence?

Group of several to hundreds of flowers

32

What is special about the Trumpet Creeper?

The petals are fused together

33

Name some popular types of inflorescence

Raceme, Spike, Umbel, compound Umbel, Head, Catkins

34

What are some dicot characteristics?

-flower parts in 4s and 5s
-leaves have distinct vein network
-vascular cambium
-vascular bundles in rings
-pollen grain with three apertures

35

What are some monocot characteristics?

-flower parts in 3s
-leaves with parallel primary veins
-no vascular cambium
-vascular bundles scattered
-pollen grain with one aperture

36

What is a fruit?

The ovary and its accessory parts that have developed and matured

37

Do fruits usually contain seeds?

Yes

38

What is the exocarp on a fruit?

The skin

39

What is the endocarp on a fruit?

Inner boundary around the seed/seeds

40

What is the mesocarp on a fruit?

The fleshy tissue between the endocarp and exocarp that is eaten

41

What are the xo, endo, and mesocarp combined called?

Pericarp

42

Name three kinds of simple, fleshy fruit

Drupe, berry, pome

43

Describe a drupe

Hard endocarp

44

Describe a berry

Entire pericarp is fleshy

45

Describe a pome

Bulk of fruit comes from enlarged floral tube or receptacle that grows up around the ovary

46

Name two types of dry fruits

Dehiscent and Indehiscent

47

What is dehiscent?

Dry fruits that open

48

What is indehiscent?

Dry fruits that don't open

49

Give an example of a drupe

Peach, pit cherries

50

Give an example of a berry

Grapes, tomato

51

Give an example of a pome

Apple

52

Give examples of indehiscent dry fruits

Achene, nut, grain, samara

53

What is an achene?

One seeded, seed and pericarp not fused

54

What is a nut?

Larger, hard fruit

55

What is a grain?

Grass family, seed and pericarp fused together

56

What is a samara?

"Winged" fruit

57

Give examples of dehiscent dry fruits

Follicle, legume, capsule

58

What is a follicle?

Splits along one side or seam

59

What is a legume?

Splits along two sides or seams

60

What is a capsule?

Consists of at least two carpels and splits in a variety of ways

61

Name two types of composite fruits

Aggregate fruits and multiple fruits

62

What is an aggregate fruit?

A fruit derived from a single flower with several to many pistils
Individual pistils mature as a clustered unit on a single receptacle

63

Give examples of aggregate fruit

Raspberry, strawberry

64

What is multiple fruit?

Derived from several to many individual flowers in a single inflorescence

65

Give examples of multiple fruits

Pineapples, figs, osage orange

66

What kind of seeds are dispersed with the wind?

Small and lightweight

67

How does animal seed dispersion work?

The seeds pass through the digestive tract or catch on fur/feathers

68

How can seeds attract ants?

With oils

69

Some fruits contain what that pertains to water disposal?

Air

70

Give examples of wind dispersed seeds

dandelion, maple, poppy, orchid, cottonwood, tumbleweed, oak, grasses

71

Give examples of animal dispersed seeds

cocklebur, mistletoe berries, bur clover fruit, bedstraw fruit, capsule of unicorn plant

72

What is a food storage organ that functions as first seed leaves?

Cotyledons

73

What is an embryo shoot?

Plumule

74

What is the stem above the cotyledon?

Epicotyl

75

What is the stem tip that develops into a root?

Radicle

76

What is the beginning or resumption of seed growth?

Germination

77

What must the seed be to be able to germinate?

Viable

78

What are some things that help with viability?

A period of dormancy, scarification, post ripe

79

What extends the viability of seeds?

When they are stored under low temp dry conditions

80

What is the longest a seed waited to germinate?

10,000 years

81

What things connect flowering plants into families?

characteristics, biogeography/dist, uses

82

What family do buttercups belong to?

Ranunculaceae

83

How many member species are in the Ranunculaceae family?

1,500, nearly all herbaceous

84

Are members of Ranunculaceae poisonous?

Most members are at least slightly poisonous

85

What family do Cinnamon, Cassia, Sassafras, Sweet Bay, and Camphor belong to?

Lauraceae

86

What family do drugs like Opium, Morphine, Codeine, and Heroin belong to?

Papaveraceae

87

Where are most Papaveraceaes located?

Temperate and subtropical regions North of the equator

88

Ranunculaceae

Buttercups

89

Lauraceae

Cinnamon, Cassia, Sassafras, Sweet Bay, and Camphor

90

Papaveraceae

Opium, Morphine, Codeine, and Heroin

91

What family do Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussel Sprouts, Broccoli, Radish, Turnip, Horseradish, Watercress, and Rutabaga belong to?

Brassicaceae

92

How many members are in the Brassicaceae family?

About 2,500

93

Where are most members of the Brassicaceae family located?

Primarily throughout the temperate and cooler regions of North America

94

Brassicaceae

Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussel Sprouts, Broccoli, Radish, Turnip, Horseradish, Watercress, and Rutabaga

95

What is the modern name for a Cruciferae?

Brassicaceae

96

What do the flower petals of Cruciferae/Brassicaceae look like and how many?

Cross, 4

97

How many species/members does the Rosaceae family include?

3,000

98

What is the economic impact of the Rosaceae family?

Garden ornamentals, fragrances, hips

99

What family do Peas, Beans, Peanuts, and Alfalfa belong to?

Fabaceae

100

What is another name for the Fabaceae family?

Legume

101

What is the third largest flowering plant family??

Fabaceae

102

How many members does the Fabaceae family have?

13,000

103

Fabaceae

Peas, Beans, Peanuts, and Alfalfa

104

What family are cactus in?

Cactaceae

105

How many members are in the Cactaceae family?

Potentially more than 1,500

106

Where is the Cactaceae family usually located?

In dry, subtropical regions

107

Can members of the Cactaceae family be eaten?

Yes

108

What family is mint in?

Lamiaceae

109

Cactaceae

Cactus

110

Lamiaceae

Mint

111

How can you distinguish members of the Lamiaceae family?

-Angular stems with square cross sections
-Opposite leaves
-Bilaterally symmetrical flowers

112

What can mint oils be used for?

Medical antiseptics

113

What family do Capsicum, Jimsyn weed, Tobacco, and Tomatoes belong to?

Solanaceae

114

What is another name for the Solanaceae family?

Nightshade family

115

What family does the Belladonna drug complex including atropine and scopolamine stem from?

Solanaceae

116

Solanaceae

Capsicum, Jimsyn weed, Tobacco, and Tomatoes

117

What family do Dill, Celery, Carrots, Parsley, and Caraway belong to?

Apiaceae

118

What is another name for the Apiaceae family?

Carrot family

119

How many members does the Apiaceae family include?

Approx. 2,000

120

What is the second largest flowering plant family?

Asteraceae

121

Apiaceae

Dill, Celery, Carrots, Parsley, and Caraway

122

What family do sunflowers belong to?

Asteraceae

123

What are individual flowers called?

Florets

124

What is another name for the Asteraceae family?

Sunflowers family

125

What family do grains, Sugar Cane, Citronella, and Fibers belong to?

Poaceae

126

What is another name for the Poaceae family?

Grass family

127

What family includes specialized flowers and cereals?

Poaceae

128

Poaceae

Grains, Sugar Cane, Citronella, and Fibers

129

What family do Asparagus, Sarsaparilla, Meadow Saffron, Aloe, and Onions/Garlic belong to?

Liliaceae

130

What is another name for the Liliaceae family?

Lily family

131

How many members does the Liliaceae family include?

Approx. 4,550

132

Where does the Liliaceae family occur?

In almost any area supporting vegetation

133

Liliaceae

Asparagus, Sarsaparilla, Meadow Saffron, Aloe, and Onions/Garlic

134

What family do orchids belong to?

Orchidaceae

135

How large is the Orchidaceae family?

More than 35,000 species

136

Where can members of the Orchidaceae family be found?

They are widely distributed with diverse habitats

137

Are the flowers in the Ochidaceae family all different or generally the same?

Extremely varied in size and form

138

Name two regional issue that affects ecology

Acid deposition and water contamination

139

What is acid deposition?

The burning of fossil fuels that release sulfur and nitrogen compounds into the atmosphere

140

How do rain and sunlight play a role in acid deposition?

The chemicals react with the sunlight and rain to convert the compounds into nitric acid and sulfuric acid

141

Name two effects of acid rain

Tree loss (Spruce decline) and accelerates weathering

142

Give some examples of things that contaminate water

-Pesticides
-Septic Tanks
-Fertilizer
-Hazardous waste
-Exhaust

143

What are different kinds of water contamination?

-Surface water contamination
-Ground-water contamination
-Wetlands

144

Give examples of things that contaminate surface water

-Pollution runoff
-pesticides
-engine exhaust

145

Give examples of things that contaminate ground-water

-pesticides
-septic tanks
-fertilizers

146

How are wetlands affected by water contamination?

-Seen as wasteland and drained to become ag land
-wildlife habitat, can lead to certain extinction if trashed

147

What type of land can perform the same recycling functions as $150,000 treatment centers?

Wetland

148

How did earlier generations dispose of hazardous waste?

Casually

149

Now how does hazardous waste get "loose?"

From spills and accidents

150

Name four global concerns

-Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
-"Ozone hole" in South polar region
-Climate Change
-Loss of Biodiversity (Extinction)

151

Define a population

A group of individuals of the same species inhabiting the same area at the same time
(Same time and location and species)

152

Name three important characteristics of populations

-Pop size
-Pop density
-Genetic diversity

153

Define a community

Many populations of many species living together at the same time and location
(Same time and location and many species)

154

How do similar communities occur?

Under similar environmental conditions

155

What are ecotones?

transitions between communities

156

What is the speakers name that came in?

Karen Willard

157

How can ecosystems sustain themselves?

Through photosynthetic activity, energy flow through food chains, and nutrient recycling

158

What are producers?

Organisms that are capable of carrying out photosynthesis and storing energy that is produced

159

What type of consumer feeds on producers?

Primary

160

What type of consumer feeds on primary consumers?

Secondary

161

What are decomposers?

organisms that break down organic material to forms that are release back into the ecosystem for reassimilation

162

What is an ecosystem?

Interlocking food webs that determine energy flow

163

What is a food web made of?

Food chains

164

What percent of the light energy falling on a temperate zone community is involved in organic material production?

1%

165

What percent of the energy or biomass is transferred from one level to the next in a food chain?

About 10%

166

Because only 10% of the energy is transferred between food chain levels what does this mean?

There is a sharp reduction in the number of individuals at each level

167

Water cycle

Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff

168

What organism cycles carbon?

Bacteria

169

Burning what has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

Fossil fuels

170

How does an increase in Co2 effect plant growth?

Initial increase but becomes limited

171

Where is most nitrogen in living organisms?

In the protoplasmic proteins of their cells

172

Where is most nitrogen supply from?

Soil in the form of inorganic compounds and ions

173

What is succession?

When after awhile plants come up, like if you don't mow for a really long time

174

What is primary succession?

Soil formation

175

What is secondary succession?

Disturbed areas (mowed places)

176

What is climax vegetation?

Stable plant associations

177

Why are some fires good?

The lead to new growth

178

What are most natural fires started by?

Lightning

179

Trying to eliminate fires disrupts what?

Natural cycles

180

What is the Greenhouse Effect/

When certain gases allow sunlight to pass through the atmosphere but trap the heat radiation

181

Name two greenhouse gases

CO2 and methane

182

What do fossil fuels release into the atm?

CO2

183

What do swamps and wetlands release that is produced by bacteria?

Methane

184

When habitats are destroyed quickly, why can't organisms survive?

They can't adapt fast enough

185

What has accelerated over the past 50 years as humans have altered ecosystems?

Extinction rates

186

How much has the average annual temperatures increased since 1895?

0.7C

187

When did most of the temperature increasing happen?

Since 1970

188

When was the warmest decade on record?

The most recent one

189

T/F: extreme weather events increasing is an example of climate change evidence

True

190

What has been increasing since the 1980s?

The length of growing season

191

What natural disaster has increased in intensity, frequency, and duration since the 1980s?

Atlantic hurricanes

192

What human activities are causing climate change?

Burning fossil fuels and deforestation leads to increase of CO2

193

What is the projected increase in global temperature by 2100?

1.1 to 2.2 C or 2.8 to 5.6 in the worst case

194

An increase in global temperature will lead to what kind of migration?

Vegetation migration

195

Melting polar ice caps leads to

Rising sea levels

196

Which direction will Red Spruce forests shift?

Up in elevation and northward in the Northern Hemisphere

197

What will happened to plants because of climate change?

-Migration
-Expansion and contraction
-Permafrost degradation at high lat
-Substantial reduction of snow and ice

198

Microbial loop

Structure and composition of vegetation-->input of organic matter to soil-->abundance of bacteria in soil-->eumycetozoans present-->energy pathway-->productivity and carbon sequestration

199

Where is the Spruce/hardwood ecotone shift?

Central Appalachians

200

Bog/Spruce/hardwood ecotone is where?

Mtns of Western central West Virginia

201

What percent of the land surface in the antarctic is ice-free?

1-2%

202

What does vegetation in the antarctic mostly consist of?

"Lower" plants

203

How many macrofungi are known in the antarctic?

About 20 species

204

What are the two vascular plants found in the antarctic and what are their families?

-Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae)
-Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae)

205

What does order of magnitude inc by?

1-->10-->100

206

What do antarctic plants do to keep warm?

Huddle together

207

Name a primitive flower?

Magnolia

208

What is a regular flower?

If you twirl it around it looks all the same

209

Name an irregular flower

Orchid, bleeding heart

210

Name four primitive flower parts?

Sepals, stamen,petals, carpels

211

What flower part looks like mickey mouse?

Stamen with pollen sacs

212

Where is the placenta?

Inside pollen sac

213

What is a micropyle?

The opening that allows sperm to reach the egg

214

How many nuclei are typically in the female reproduction system?

8

215

What is the ovule?

The seed

216

Name a plant with the highest number of seeds

Orchid, thousands

217

What are four pollinators?

Wind, birds, bats, bugs

218

What do bug pollinated plants look like?

Flashy

219

What is an example of bird pollinated flowers and what color are they?

Red, Trumpet vine, creeper

220

Where are bat pollinated plants located?

High in the topic canopy

221

What is not a good material when plants are being kept?

Cellophane tape

222

What is special about wild ginger?

Self pollenated, mildly carcinogenic

223

What is the worlds largest flower like?

1m across, smells like rotting flesh flower of root parasite

224

What are catkins from?

Oaks wind pollinated

225

What are sepals?

The leaflike things are the base off the flower

226

What does the anther hold?

Pollen with filament

227

Is the pistil female or male?

Female

228

What is an inflorescence?

A group of flowers

229

What does an umbel look like?

A fan

230

What does a spike look like?

Grows up opposite of catkins

231

What is a raceme?

Mostly primitive alternating

232

What is a one seed leaf?

Monocot

233

What is a two seed leaf?

Dicot

234

Is wild ginger monocot or dicot?

Dicot because net veins

235

Monocots never have what? but dicots have exceptions

Vascular cambium

236

Is bamboo monocot or dicot?

Monocot

237

Name a nitrogen fixing family?

Legumes

238

What is a stone fruit?

Drupe, pit fruit

239

What reshaped civilization?

Wine

240

Name the most primitive fruit?

Follicle

241

Name the parts of a seed

Seed coat, micropyle, hypocotyl, hilum, plumule

242

Is corn monocot or dicot?

Monocot, one leaf

243

what favorable environmental factors do seeds need to germinate?

Able to take up water, and good temperature

244

Is dicot taproot or fibrous?

Taproot

245

Is monocot taproot or fibrous?

Fibrous

246

How long can dry seeds on a shelf last?

Up to 1/2 century

247

Ranunculaceae family is pollinated by what?

Hummingbirds

248

Lauracaea family has what unique trait?

V odorous

249

Where is the Papaveraceae family found?

In the Northern Hemisphere

250

What does a rose have?

Prickles

251

How many petals does a wild rose have?

5

252

What are rose hips?

Look like tomatoes and can be eaten

253

What family are raspberries and blueberries part of?

Rosaceae

254

Name two types of Cacti

Barrel, prickly pear

255

What family is highly toxic if too much is consumed?

Solanaceae

256

What can Jimson weed do?

Get you high, kill you, and go blind when chewed

257

What kind of leaf arrangement does the genus lilium have?

Whorled

258

Name two plants in the liliaceae family that have spots

Trout lily and fawn lily

259

Why are orchids hard to establish?

Because they are so mycorrihizol

260

Facts about the Skunk cabbage

Fat spike, fly pollenated, smells bad

261

Facts about Jack in a pulpit

Sexes separate but can change sex

262

Facts about blood root

Petals fall off super easy, far produces red latex, rhizome, little toxic

263

Name a flower with a heart leaf

Violet

264

What is a flower?

The reproductive structure of angiosperms

265

What are flower flies?

Look like bees, act like bees

266

What is a scavenger?

Eats dead things

267

What is special about a trumpet creeper?

5 fused petals

268

Name an organism highly affected by acid rain

Frogs

269

What is DDT?

A pesticide

270

What is the ozone hole?

Does not block UV radiation S AUstralia

271

Name a place with slow succession

National Parks

272

What is primary succession?

Starting from scratch

273

What is secondary succession?

Like in a parking lot

274

Name a temporary landscape

Ponds

275

Name an invasive species that can take over a whole forest

Kutzu

276

Where are most invasive plants found?

Road side/along disturbed areas

277

Red spruce grows where?

Cold low evelation

278

Gentu penguins in the subantarctic are affected by global warming how?

Multiple species affect reproduction

279

Why are bryophytes and lichens heavily pigmented in the antarctic?

Sunscreen

280

What is Carophyllacaea?

The pink family with notched petals