Flashcards in Final Deck (280):
What are seed plants?
When did flowering plants first appear? What period?
160 million years ago during the late Jurassic period
What did most botanists hypothesize about primitive flowers?
That they had numerous spirally-arranged parts that weren't fused
What makes angiosperms different from gymnosperms?
The angiosperm seeds are contained in a structure
What is the structure where seeds are contained called?
What is the largest and most diverse phylum of the Plant Kingdom?
Are angiosperms heterosporous or homosporous?
Describe a female gametophyte
Wholly enclosed within sporophyte tissue and are reduced to only few cells
Describe a male gametophyte
Consist of a germinated pollen grain with three nuclei
Give an example of a compound carpel
Tomato, thinner pericarp several ovules
Give an example of a simple carpel
Avocado, thicker pericarp, one ovule
What is pollination?
The transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma
What is fertilization?
The union of an egg and sperm
How long can fertilization take place after pollination?
Days, weeks, or months after
What color flowers do birds often visit? Smell?
Bright red or yellow, very little odor
How do flowers ensure the return of bird-pollinators?
The produce copious amounts of nectar
What kind of flowers do bats visit?
Ones that open at night
What is a herbaria?
Libraries of dried, pressed plants, algae, fungi arranged and labeled
How long can a properly prepared specimen remain in excellent condition?
What is special about wild ginger?
The flower is located at the base of the plant
What does an embryonic primordium develop into?
What is another name for sepals?
What is another name for petals?
What are the calyx and corolla together called?
What does a stamen consist of?
Filament with an anther on top
What develops in anthers?
What are stamen attached to?
The receptacle around the base of the pistil
What does the pistil consist of?
Stigma, style, ovary
What is a Superior Ovary?
Calyx and corolla attached to the receptacle at the base of the ovary
What is an Inferior Ovary?
Where the receptacle grows up and around the ovary, calyx and corolla appear to attach on top
What is an inflorescence?
Group of several to hundreds of flowers
What is special about the Trumpet Creeper?
The petals are fused together
Name some popular types of inflorescence
Raceme, Spike, Umbel, compound Umbel, Head, Catkins
What are some dicot characteristics?
-flower parts in 4s and 5s
-leaves have distinct vein network
-vascular bundles in rings
-pollen grain with three apertures
What are some monocot characteristics?
-flower parts in 3s
-leaves with parallel primary veins
-no vascular cambium
-vascular bundles scattered
-pollen grain with one aperture
What is a fruit?
The ovary and its accessory parts that have developed and matured
Do fruits usually contain seeds?
What is the exocarp on a fruit?
What is the endocarp on a fruit?
Inner boundary around the seed/seeds
What is the mesocarp on a fruit?
The fleshy tissue between the endocarp and exocarp that is eaten
What are the xo, endo, and mesocarp combined called?
Name three kinds of simple, fleshy fruit
Drupe, berry, pome
Describe a drupe
Describe a berry
Entire pericarp is fleshy
Describe a pome
Bulk of fruit comes from enlarged floral tube or receptacle that grows up around the ovary
Name two types of dry fruits
Dehiscent and Indehiscent
What is dehiscent?
Dry fruits that open
What is indehiscent?
Dry fruits that don't open
Give an example of a drupe
Peach, pit cherries
Give an example of a berry
Give an example of a pome
Give examples of indehiscent dry fruits
Achene, nut, grain, samara
What is an achene?
One seeded, seed and pericarp not fused
What is a nut?
Larger, hard fruit
What is a grain?
Grass family, seed and pericarp fused together
What is a samara?
Give examples of dehiscent dry fruits
Follicle, legume, capsule
What is a follicle?
Splits along one side or seam
What is a legume?
Splits along two sides or seams
What is a capsule?
Consists of at least two carpels and splits in a variety of ways
Name two types of composite fruits
Aggregate fruits and multiple fruits
What is an aggregate fruit?
A fruit derived from a single flower with several to many pistils
Individual pistils mature as a clustered unit on a single receptacle
Give examples of aggregate fruit
What is multiple fruit?
Derived from several to many individual flowers in a single inflorescence
Give examples of multiple fruits
Pineapples, figs, osage orange
What kind of seeds are dispersed with the wind?
Small and lightweight
How does animal seed dispersion work?
The seeds pass through the digestive tract or catch on fur/feathers
How can seeds attract ants?
Some fruits contain what that pertains to water disposal?
Give examples of wind dispersed seeds
dandelion, maple, poppy, orchid, cottonwood, tumbleweed, oak, grasses
Give examples of animal dispersed seeds
cocklebur, mistletoe berries, bur clover fruit, bedstraw fruit, capsule of unicorn plant
What is a food storage organ that functions as first seed leaves?
What is an embryo shoot?
What is the stem above the cotyledon?
What is the stem tip that develops into a root?
What is the beginning or resumption of seed growth?
What must the seed be to be able to germinate?
What are some things that help with viability?
A period of dormancy, scarification, post ripe
What extends the viability of seeds?
When they are stored under low temp dry conditions
What is the longest a seed waited to germinate?
What things connect flowering plants into families?
characteristics, biogeography/dist, uses
What family do buttercups belong to?
How many member species are in the Ranunculaceae family?
1,500, nearly all herbaceous
Are members of Ranunculaceae poisonous?
Most members are at least slightly poisonous
What family do Cinnamon, Cassia, Sassafras, Sweet Bay, and Camphor belong to?
What family do drugs like Opium, Morphine, Codeine, and Heroin belong to?
Where are most Papaveraceaes located?
Temperate and subtropical regions North of the equator
Cinnamon, Cassia, Sassafras, Sweet Bay, and Camphor
Opium, Morphine, Codeine, and Heroin
What family do Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussel Sprouts, Broccoli, Radish, Turnip, Horseradish, Watercress, and Rutabaga belong to?
How many members are in the Brassicaceae family?
Where are most members of the Brassicaceae family located?
Primarily throughout the temperate and cooler regions of North America
Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussel Sprouts, Broccoli, Radish, Turnip, Horseradish, Watercress, and Rutabaga
What is the modern name for a Cruciferae?
What do the flower petals of Cruciferae/Brassicaceae look like and how many?
How many species/members does the Rosaceae family include?
What is the economic impact of the Rosaceae family?
Garden ornamentals, fragrances, hips
What family do Peas, Beans, Peanuts, and Alfalfa belong to?
What is another name for the Fabaceae family?
What is the third largest flowering plant family??
How many members does the Fabaceae family have?
Peas, Beans, Peanuts, and Alfalfa
What family are cactus in?
How many members are in the Cactaceae family?
Potentially more than 1,500
Where is the Cactaceae family usually located?
In dry, subtropical regions
Can members of the Cactaceae family be eaten?
What family is mint in?
How can you distinguish members of the Lamiaceae family?
-Angular stems with square cross sections
-Bilaterally symmetrical flowers
What can mint oils be used for?
What family do Capsicum, Jimsyn weed, Tobacco, and Tomatoes belong to?
What is another name for the Solanaceae family?
What family does the Belladonna drug complex including atropine and scopolamine stem from?
Capsicum, Jimsyn weed, Tobacco, and Tomatoes
What family do Dill, Celery, Carrots, Parsley, and Caraway belong to?
What is another name for the Apiaceae family?
How many members does the Apiaceae family include?
What is the second largest flowering plant family?
Dill, Celery, Carrots, Parsley, and Caraway
What family do sunflowers belong to?
What are individual flowers called?
What is another name for the Asteraceae family?
What family do grains, Sugar Cane, Citronella, and Fibers belong to?
What is another name for the Poaceae family?
What family includes specialized flowers and cereals?
Grains, Sugar Cane, Citronella, and Fibers
What family do Asparagus, Sarsaparilla, Meadow Saffron, Aloe, and Onions/Garlic belong to?
What is another name for the Liliaceae family?
How many members does the Liliaceae family include?
Where does the Liliaceae family occur?
In almost any area supporting vegetation
Asparagus, Sarsaparilla, Meadow Saffron, Aloe, and Onions/Garlic
What family do orchids belong to?
How large is the Orchidaceae family?
More than 35,000 species
Where can members of the Orchidaceae family be found?
They are widely distributed with diverse habitats
Are the flowers in the Ochidaceae family all different or generally the same?
Extremely varied in size and form
Name two regional issue that affects ecology
Acid deposition and water contamination
What is acid deposition?
The burning of fossil fuels that release sulfur and nitrogen compounds into the atmosphere
How do rain and sunlight play a role in acid deposition?
The chemicals react with the sunlight and rain to convert the compounds into nitric acid and sulfuric acid
Name two effects of acid rain
Tree loss (Spruce decline) and accelerates weathering
Give some examples of things that contaminate water
What are different kinds of water contamination?
-Surface water contamination
Give examples of things that contaminate surface water
Give examples of things that contaminate ground-water
How are wetlands affected by water contamination?
-Seen as wasteland and drained to become ag land
-wildlife habitat, can lead to certain extinction if trashed
What type of land can perform the same recycling functions as $150,000 treatment centers?
How did earlier generations dispose of hazardous waste?
Now how does hazardous waste get "loose?"
From spills and accidents
Name four global concerns
-Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
-"Ozone hole" in South polar region
-Loss of Biodiversity (Extinction)
Define a population
A group of individuals of the same species inhabiting the same area at the same time
(Same time and location and species)
Name three important characteristics of populations
Define a community
Many populations of many species living together at the same time and location
(Same time and location and many species)
How do similar communities occur?
Under similar environmental conditions
What are ecotones?
transitions between communities
What is the speakers name that came in?
How can ecosystems sustain themselves?
Through photosynthetic activity, energy flow through food chains, and nutrient recycling
What are producers?
Organisms that are capable of carrying out photosynthesis and storing energy that is produced
What type of consumer feeds on producers?
What type of consumer feeds on primary consumers?
What are decomposers?
organisms that break down organic material to forms that are release back into the ecosystem for reassimilation
What is an ecosystem?
Interlocking food webs that determine energy flow
What is a food web made of?
What percent of the light energy falling on a temperate zone community is involved in organic material production?
What percent of the energy or biomass is transferred from one level to the next in a food chain?
Because only 10% of the energy is transferred between food chain levels what does this mean?
There is a sharp reduction in the number of individuals at each level
Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff
What organism cycles carbon?
Burning what has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
How does an increase in Co2 effect plant growth?
Initial increase but becomes limited
Where is most nitrogen in living organisms?
In the protoplasmic proteins of their cells
Where is most nitrogen supply from?
Soil in the form of inorganic compounds and ions
What is succession?
When after awhile plants come up, like if you don't mow for a really long time
What is primary succession?
What is secondary succession?
Disturbed areas (mowed places)
What is climax vegetation?
Stable plant associations
Why are some fires good?
The lead to new growth
What are most natural fires started by?
Trying to eliminate fires disrupts what?
What is the Greenhouse Effect/
When certain gases allow sunlight to pass through the atmosphere but trap the heat radiation
Name two greenhouse gases
CO2 and methane
What do fossil fuels release into the atm?
What do swamps and wetlands release that is produced by bacteria?
When habitats are destroyed quickly, why can't organisms survive?
They can't adapt fast enough
What has accelerated over the past 50 years as humans have altered ecosystems?
How much has the average annual temperatures increased since 1895?
When did most of the temperature increasing happen?
When was the warmest decade on record?
The most recent one
T/F: extreme weather events increasing is an example of climate change evidence
What has been increasing since the 1980s?
The length of growing season
What natural disaster has increased in intensity, frequency, and duration since the 1980s?
What human activities are causing climate change?
Burning fossil fuels and deforestation leads to increase of CO2
What is the projected increase in global temperature by 2100?
1.1 to 2.2 C or 2.8 to 5.6 in the worst case
An increase in global temperature will lead to what kind of migration?
Melting polar ice caps leads to
Rising sea levels
Which direction will Red Spruce forests shift?
Up in elevation and northward in the Northern Hemisphere
What will happened to plants because of climate change?
-Expansion and contraction
-Permafrost degradation at high lat
-Substantial reduction of snow and ice
Structure and composition of vegetation-->input of organic matter to soil-->abundance of bacteria in soil-->eumycetozoans present-->energy pathway-->productivity and carbon sequestration
Where is the Spruce/hardwood ecotone shift?
Bog/Spruce/hardwood ecotone is where?
Mtns of Western central West Virginia
What percent of the land surface in the antarctic is ice-free?
What does vegetation in the antarctic mostly consist of?
How many macrofungi are known in the antarctic?
About 20 species
What are the two vascular plants found in the antarctic and what are their families?
-Deschampsia antarctica (Poaceae)
-Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae)
What does order of magnitude inc by?
What do antarctic plants do to keep warm?
Name a primitive flower?
What is a regular flower?
If you twirl it around it looks all the same
Name an irregular flower
Orchid, bleeding heart
Name four primitive flower parts?
Sepals, stamen,petals, carpels
What flower part looks like mickey mouse?
Stamen with pollen sacs
Where is the placenta?
Inside pollen sac
What is a micropyle?
The opening that allows sperm to reach the egg
How many nuclei are typically in the female reproduction system?
What is the ovule?
Name a plant with the highest number of seeds
What are four pollinators?
Wind, birds, bats, bugs
What do bug pollinated plants look like?
What is an example of bird pollinated flowers and what color are they?
Red, Trumpet vine, creeper
Where are bat pollinated plants located?
High in the topic canopy
What is not a good material when plants are being kept?
What is special about wild ginger?
Self pollenated, mildly carcinogenic
What is the worlds largest flower like?
1m across, smells like rotting flesh flower of root parasite
What are catkins from?
Oaks wind pollinated
What are sepals?
The leaflike things are the base off the flower
What does the anther hold?
Pollen with filament
Is the pistil female or male?
What is an inflorescence?
A group of flowers
What does an umbel look like?
What does a spike look like?
Grows up opposite of catkins
What is a raceme?
Mostly primitive alternating
What is a one seed leaf?
What is a two seed leaf?
Is wild ginger monocot or dicot?
Dicot because net veins
Monocots never have what? but dicots have exceptions
Is bamboo monocot or dicot?
Name a nitrogen fixing family?
What is a stone fruit?
Drupe, pit fruit
What reshaped civilization?
Name the most primitive fruit?
Name the parts of a seed
Seed coat, micropyle, hypocotyl, hilum, plumule
Is corn monocot or dicot?
Monocot, one leaf
what favorable environmental factors do seeds need to germinate?
Able to take up water, and good temperature
Is dicot taproot or fibrous?
Is monocot taproot or fibrous?
How long can dry seeds on a shelf last?
Up to 1/2 century
Ranunculaceae family is pollinated by what?
Lauracaea family has what unique trait?
Where is the Papaveraceae family found?
In the Northern Hemisphere
What does a rose have?
How many petals does a wild rose have?
What are rose hips?
Look like tomatoes and can be eaten
What family are raspberries and blueberries part of?
Name two types of Cacti
Barrel, prickly pear
What family is highly toxic if too much is consumed?
What can Jimson weed do?
Get you high, kill you, and go blind when chewed
What kind of leaf arrangement does the genus lilium have?
Name two plants in the liliaceae family that have spots
Trout lily and fawn lily
Why are orchids hard to establish?
Because they are so mycorrihizol
Facts about the Skunk cabbage
Fat spike, fly pollenated, smells bad
Facts about Jack in a pulpit
Sexes separate but can change sex
Facts about blood root
Petals fall off super easy, far produces red latex, rhizome, little toxic
Name a flower with a heart leaf
What is a flower?
The reproductive structure of angiosperms
What are flower flies?
Look like bees, act like bees
What is a scavenger?
Eats dead things
What is special about a trumpet creeper?
5 fused petals
Name an organism highly affected by acid rain
What is DDT?
What is the ozone hole?
Does not block UV radiation S AUstralia
Name a place with slow succession
What is primary succession?
Starting from scratch
What is secondary succession?
Like in a parking lot
Name a temporary landscape
Name an invasive species that can take over a whole forest
Where are most invasive plants found?
Road side/along disturbed areas
Red spruce grows where?
Cold low evelation
Gentu penguins in the subantarctic are affected by global warming how?
Multiple species affect reproduction
Why are bryophytes and lichens heavily pigmented in the antarctic?