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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (285):
1

What is the difference between woody and herbaceous?

Woody: hard, secondary growth (Oak)
Herbaceous: soft (Dandelion)

2

What are most annuals?

Green and herbaceous and split monocot and dicot

3

Perennials are mostly

herbaceous

4

Herbaceous dicots have what?

Discrete vascular bundles of xylem and phloem

5

Alternate vs opposite leaf arrangements

Alternate means every other and opposite means directly across

6

Leaves attach at what?

A node

7

Between leaves (nodes) is what?

Internodes

8

What is a blade?

A flattened plant of the leaf

9

What is the blade attached to the twig by? (The little stem)

Petiole

10

What is the angle between the petiole and stem called?

The Axil

11

What is the bud located at the axil called?

Axillary bud

12

What is the bud at the tip called?

Terminal bud

13

Deciduous trees and shrubs have what in the fall?

Dormant axillary buds with leaf scars after leaves fall off

14

What protects the apical meristem before the beginning of the growing season?

Bus scales and leaf primordia

15

The three tissues that the apical meristem develops are

The protoderm, pro cambium, and the ground meristem

16

What two things does the ground meristem include?

The pith and the cortex

17

What is the leaf primodia?

It is like a covering that acts as protection for the apical meristem before growing season

18

Cells produced by the vascular cambium become what?

Components of the secondary xylem and secondary phloem

19

What kind of plants are have the cork cambium?

Woody dicots because the cork cambium produces cork cells and phelloderm cells which is essentially bark

20

How many cells thick is the vascular cambium?

One

21

Which cell is produced by the vascular cambium and is pushed toward the outside?

Phloem

22

Which cell is produced by the vascular cambium and is pushed toward the inside?

Xylem

23

What is an annual ring?

One years growth of xylem

24

Large vessel elements of secondary xylem are called?

Spring wood

25

Smaller and fewer vessel elements of the secondary xylem are called?

Summer wood

26

What do vascular rays do and look like?

Lines across the rings and function in lateral conductions of nutrients and water

27

Mature bark can consist of what?

Alternating layers of crushed phloem and cork

28

What is heartwood?

Older, darker wood at the center of the trunk/stem

29

What is sapwood?

Lighter, still-functioning xylem closest to the cambium

30

Hardwood includes

Tracheas and vessel elements

31

Softwood includes

Tracheids, no fibers and vessel elements
Ex. cone-bearing trees

32

What are bulbs?

Large buds surrounded by numerous fleshy leaves, with a small stem at the lower end

33

Large buds surrounded by numerous fleshy leaves, with a small stem at the lower end

Bulbs

34

Corms

Resemble bulbs, but composed almost entirely of stem tissue

35

Resemble bulbs, but composed almost entirely of stem tissue

Corms

36

Cladophylls

Flattened, leaf-life stems

37

Flattened, leaf-life stems

Cladophylls

38

Thorns

Modified stems

39

Modified stems

Thorns

40

Tendrils

Vines

41

Vines

Tendrils

42

Rhizomes

Horizontal stems that grow below-ground

43

Horizontal stems that grow below-ground

Rhizomes

44

Runners

Horizontal stems that generally grow along surface

45

Horizontal stems that generally grow along surface

Runners

46

Stolons

Produced beneath the surface of the ground and tend to grow in different directions

47

Produced beneath the surface of the ground and tend to grow in different directions

Stolons

48

What is a Dicotyledon?

Flowering plants that develop from seeds with two seed leaved: secondary growth

49

What is a Monocotyledon?

Flowering plants that develop from seeds with a single seed leaf: no secondary growth

50

What kinds of stems have neither a vascular cambium or a cork cambium? AKA no secondary tissues or cork

Monocot stems

51

In monocot stems vascular bundles look like what?

Monkey faces

52

What does 50% of wood weight come from? (In a living tree)

Water

53

Dry weight is composed of

60-75% cellulose, and 15-20% Lignin

54

What are knots?

Bases of lost branches covered by new annual rings

55

Half of wood production goes toward what?

Construction, lumber

56

What is veneer?

Thin sheet of desirable wood glued to cheap wood

57

Examples of pulp are:

Paper, newspaper

58

Most timber/wood is used for what in other countries?

Fuelwood

59

What percent of wood is used as fuelwood in US and Canada?

<10%

60

What qualifies as a simple leaf?

It has a single blade

61

What qualifies as a compound leaf?

It is divided into leaflets

62

Where do leaves attach to stems?

At nodes

63

The region between nodes is called

Internodes

64

What is phyllotaxy?

Leaf arrangement

65

What are the three types of leaf arrangements and describe them

-Alternate (Every other)
-Opposite("Back to back")
-Whorled (All around one point)

66

What would leaflets in pairs along the rachis be called?

Pinnately compound

67

What would leaflets attached at the same point at the end of the petiole be called?

Palmately compound

68

Pinnately compound leaves can further be divided and called

Bipinnately compound

69

Veins are also classified as

pinnate or palmate

70

Which type of veined leaf has a main midvein

Pinnately

71

What are the veins the branch out from the mid vein called?

Secondary veins

72

Which type of veined leaf has several primary veins that fan out from the base of the blade?

Palmate

73

Parallel venation occurs in

Monocots

74

Reticulate venation is also known as

Net veins

75

Fan leaves have what kind of veins?

Dichotomous

76

How many cells thick is the epidermis?

One

77

What does the epidermis do?

Protects the plant as a covering and a waxy cuticle is present

78

The upper epidermal cells are devoid of what?

Chloroplasts

79

Green leaves use sunlight for what?

Photosynthesis

80

Stomata dots which side of leave surfaces?

The lower surface

81

What do stomata do?

Allow CO2 to enter and O2 and water to diffuse out

82

What do guard cells do?

Control stomatal openings

83

When water evaporates from the leaf surface what is it called?

Transpiration

84

Photosynthesis takes place in where and between what two layers?

In the mesophyll between the epidermal layers

85

Palisade mesophyll

Uppermost layer that contains most chloroplasts

86

Spongy mesophyll

Lower layer with airspace

87

Veins are also known as what?

Vascular bundles

88

Where are vascular bundles/veins present?

Throughout the mesophyll

89

What are vascular bundles made of?

Xylem, phloem, bundle sheath

90

What are spines?

Modified leaves designed to reduce water loss and protect from herbivory

91

What are prickles?

Outgrowths from the epidermis or cortex

92

What are succulents?

Storage leaves

93

What are leaves buried in the ground called?

Window leaves

94

What are reproductive leaves?

Leaves that produce new plants at the tips

95

What are floral leaves called?

Bracts

96

Chlorophylls relate to what color?

Green

97

Carotenoids relate to what color?

Yellow

98

What happens in fall?

The chlorophylls break down and other colors are revealed

99

Betacyanins relate to what color and where are they present?

Red and in the vacuole

100

Anthocyanin's relate to what color?

Blue or red

101

Deciduous means what?

It sheds leaves annually/seasonally

102

How do plants know when to drop their leaves?

There is a change in an abscission zone near the petiole

103

After the leaves drop where does suberin come in?

It coats and impregrates the area for protection

104

Give four examples of Insect-Trapping leaves

-venus flytrap
-bladderwort
-sundew
-pitcher plant

105

Give uses for leaves (7)

-landscaping
-food
-dyes
-rope/twine
-drugs
-insecticides
-waxes

106

6CO2 + 12H2O + light--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

Photosynthesis

107

Photosynthesis

6CO2 + 12H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

108

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

Cellular Respiration

109

Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

110

C6H12O6 --> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy

Fermentation

111

Fermentation

C6H12O6 --> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy

112

Ethanol (C2H5OH) and CO2 are created from what

Yeast breaking down glucose in fermentation:
Makes bread and beer

113

How much of radiant energy is received on Earth in the form of visible light?

40%

114

How much light reaching them absorbed by leaves?

80%

115

Light intensity varies with (5)

-time of day
-season
-elevation
-latitude
-atm composition

116

Engelmann's experiment

Wanted to see where in the light spectrum bacteria would gravitate toward

117

Bacteria like which colors/wavelengths best?

Violet 400, red 700

118

What percentage of water absorbed by plants is used for photosynthesis?

Less than 1%

119

How does the plant react when water is in short supply?

The stomata close and reduce the supple of CO2 available for photosynthesis

120

How does water enter the plant?

Through root hairs

121

How does water travel throughout the plant?

Upward through the xylem

122

What tissue acts like a tube, sucking water up due to tension?

Xylem

123

What is transpiration?

When water enters a plant passing into leaf air spaces and evaporates through the stomata

124

How much water is transpired?

More than 90%

125

How much water escapes through the cuticle?

Less than 5%

126

How does CO2 reach chloroplasts in the mesophyll?

It diffuses through the stomata into the leaf interior

127

What activities have lead to excess CO2 in the atm? (3)

-fossil fuels
-deforestation
-humans

128

How do activities like deforestation lead to excess CO2 in the atm?

It enhances photosynthesis where plants counter-balance by developing fewer stomata with leads to global warming

129

What color relates to chlorophyll a?

Blue-green

130

What color relates to chlorophyll b?

Yellow-green

131

What color relates to carotenoids?

Yellow and orange

132

What color relates to phycobilins?

Blue or red

133

One photosynthetic unit includes how many pigments?

250-400

134

Name two types of molecular movement

Osmosis and diffusion

135

What is diffusion?

Movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration until equilibrium is reached

136

What is osmosis?

Diffusion of water through a permeable membrane (still more to less concentrated)

137

How does water enter a cell?

Through osmosis

138

Do plants need macronutrients or micronutrients in greater amount?

Macronutrients

139

What is the important acronym for the elements

CHOPKNS CaFe MgNaCl CuMn CoZn MoB

140

What does the element acronym stand for?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Sodium, Chlorine, Copper, Manganese, Cobalt, Zinc, Molybdenum, Boron

141

Who was the first to attempt to classify plants and when?

Theophrastus in 4th century BC

142

How many plants did Theophrastus classify and what did he base his classifications on?

500, leaf characteristics

143

When did classification by fruit, structure, and habit start?

18th century

144

What is genera?

First classifying word, typically latin, indicating genus

145

Linnaeus set out to do what?

Classify all known plants and animals according to genera

146

Linnaeus started sub classifying by what?

Species

147

The abbreviated names of plants are

binomials

148

Abbreviated name example and what each word means:

Menthe Spicata L.
First word genus
Second word species
L. for Linnaeus

149

What is the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature?

Single book with a common index on how to name a plant basically idk

150

Early classification only had organisms split into two kingdoms:

Plants or Animals

151

When was a third kingdom proposed and by who?

Hogg and Haeckel 1860

152

What was the third kingdom?

Kingdom Protoctista (Protista)

153

What change was made to the kingdoms in 1938?

Copland proposed all single-celled organisms should have a group: Monera

154

What change was made to the kingdoms in 1969?

Whittaker split fungi from protista

155

What change was made to the kingdoms in 1990?

Fonera should be split into Archaea and Bacteria

156

Now there are how many kingdoms and what are they?

6:
-Archaea
-Bacteria
-Protista
-Fungi
-Plantae
-Animalia

157

From broad to narrow what are the taxonomic ranks?

-domain
-kingdom
-phylum
-class
-order
-family
-genus
-species

158

What is cladistics?

A method of examining a natural relationships based on shared features

159

Occams Razor means what?

Simpler is better

160

Name the four characteristics of Archaea and Bacteria

-Prokaryotic cells
-Nucleoid instead of nucleus
-Nutrition is gained through absorbing food through the cell wall
-Asexual mainly...so fission

161

How big are the smallest living organisms (Archaea and Bacteria)

Less than 2 or 3 micrometers in diameter

162

How old are archaea and bacteria?

3.5 billion years old

163

What is the most numerous living organism?

Archaea and bacteria

164

What are the three forms or archaea and bacteria?

-Cocci: spherical or elliptical
-Bacilli: rod shaped of cylindrical
-Spirilla: helix or spiral

165

What do bacteria do?

Decompose

166

Where in the food chain are bacteria?

The bottom

167

Bacteria are..

Nitrogen fixing

168

Bacterias evolution is

Short term

169

Archaea were recognized as distinct in what year?

1977

170

How do archaea and bacteria differ?

Their metabolisms are different

171

Where do Archaea were first found in what kind of environment?

Extreme

172

What is the largest group of archaea?

Methane bacteria

173

You can produce methane from what?

Carbon dioxide and hydrogen

174

What are some commercial uses for methane?

captured from landfills, it can be burned to produce electricity, heat buildings, or power garbage trucks.

175

What are Cyanobacteria also known as?

Blue-Green Bacteria/Blue-Green Algae

176

What distinguished cyanobacteria from traditional bacteria?

-cyanobactera have chlorophyll a and O2 produced in photosynthesis
-they contain phycobilins
-they can fix nitrogen and produce O2

177

What type of year and where do many aquatic photosynthetic organisms become abundant?
What is it known as?

Fresh water in warmer months
Algal blooms

178

What do algal blooms lead to?

Swimmers itch and nitrogen fixation

179

What distinguishes prochlorobacteria?

-It posses chlorophyll a and b of higher plants but has no phycobilin pigments like cyanobacteria

Originated from cells living in cells of other organisms

180

What do viruses lack?

Cellular structure

181

What do viruses consist of?

Nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein coat
They look like robots

182

How are viruses grouped?

According to DNA vs RNA, size, shape, and structure

183

What are Bacteriophages?

Viruses that attack bacteria

184

At whose expense can viruses replicate?

The host

185

What are the steps a virus takes when in a host?

-Attach to susceptible cell
-Penetrate cell interior
-DNA/RNA dictates synthesis of new molecules
-New viruses releases from host cell

186

Name the phylums or Kingdom protista (8)

-chlorophyta
-chromophyta (diatoms)
-rhodophyta
-euglenophyta
-dinophyta
-charophyta
-myxomycota
-oomycota (water molds)

187

What kinds of cells do Protists have?

Eukaryotic

188

What is Chlorophyta?

Green Algae

189

How many species does Green Algae include?

7500, many forms, widespread habitats WATER

190

How do Green Algae reproduce and how many nucleus do they have?

Sexually and asexually with a single nucleus

191

What are some features of Chlamydomonas?

-live in freshwater
pools
-have whip-like flagella on one end pull the cell through the water
-single, cup-shaped chloroplast with one or two pyrenoids inside

192

Spirogyra is also know as

Pond scum

193

What are some features of Spirogyra?

-They are common freshwater algae
-They consist of unbranched filaments of cylindrical cells
-frequently float in masses at the surface of quiet waters
-asexual Reproduction by Fragmentation of existing
filaments
-sexual Reproduction by
Papillae fuse and form conjugation tubes

194

What is Ulva?

Also known as Sea Lettuce, it is multicellular seaweed with flattened green blades

195

What is Volvox?

Colonial green algae held together in a secretion of gelatinous material

196

What are examples of Green Algae?

-Chlamydomonas
-Spirogyra
-Ulva
-Volvox
-Chlorella
-Desmids

197

What are Chlorella?

Widespread green alga composed of tiny spherical cells

198

What are dismids?

Mostly free-floating and unicellular

199

What is the most abundant species included under Red Algae?

Seaweed, that occur in warmer and deeper waters

200

Where does red algae get most of its color?

Phycobilins

201

What do most red algae species produce?

Agar

202

Chromophyta includes

Diatoms

203

Where do diatoms occur?

Both fresh and salt water

204

Do diatoms like colder or warmer water?

Colder

205

What is Phaeophyceaes?

Brown Algae

206

What are some features of brown algae?

-Relativelt large and mostly marine
-Non-unicellular or colonial
-kelp
-Likes cool water

207

What are two examples of brown algae?

-Sargassum: Floating Brown seaweed
-Fucus: Common rockweed

208

What shape are Euglenoids?

Spindle-shaped

209

Not having a cell wall allows Euglenoids to do what?

Change shape as they move

210

What do Euglenoids contain?

Gullet and a redeye spot

211

Dinophyta is also know as

Dinoflagellates

212

Where does the red tide come from?

Dinoflagellates that produce toxins

213

Which organism is bioluminescent?

Dinoflagellates

214

Name an organism that is primarily aquatic in shallow freshwater lakes and ponds

Stoneworts

215

What do stoneworts precipitate on their surface?

Calcium salts

216

What does a stonewort look like?

Short lateral branches in whorls

217

What organism reproduces oogamously?

Stoneworts

218

What is a Myxomycetes?

Plasmodial Slime Molds

219

What do plasmodial slime molds lack and are incapable of producing?

Lack chlorophyll and cannot produce food

220

What is animal like during life but fungal like during reproduction?

Plasmodial slime molds

221

What two organisms resemble fungus but are actually protists

Slime molds and water molds

222

What can be found on dead insects in the water?

Water molds

223

Mycelia is made of what?

Coenocytic hyphae

224

Hyphae is to ____ as mycelia is to ____

thread, shirt

225

Are sporophytes haploid or diploid?

Diploid

226

What do sporophytes produce and through what function?

Spores, meiosis

227

Are gametophytes haploid or diploid?

Haploid

228

What do gametophytes produce and through what function?

Gametes, mitosis

229

Fertilization produces what?

Zygotes

230

Is fertilization haploid or diploid?

Diploid

231

Name 10 protists by their common name

-green algae
-diatoms
-red algae
-brown algae
-euglenoids
-dinoflagellates
-stoneworts
-plasmodial slime molds
-water molds

232

What is true of all fungi?

-They are filamentous or unicellular heterotrophs
-Absorb food through cell wall

233

How many phyla does the fungi kingdom have?

Five-- except some chytrids and

234

Chytrids can also be called

Zoosporic

235

Zoosporic translates to

Little pot

236

Name the six phylums in the fungal kingdom

-Chytridomycota
-Zygomycota
-Ascomycota
-Basidiomycota
-Deuteromycota
-Lichens

237

What do Chytrids include?

Mostly one-celled organisms

238

Zygomycota is also known as

Coenocytic True Fungi

239

What famous mold is included in the zygomycota phylum?

Black bread molds

240

Pilobolus is found on what?

Cow pies

241

Name an endomycorrhizal fungi

Zygomycota

242

What wood is used to make baseball bats?

White ash

243

What is a product of white ash?

Baseball bats

244

What wood is used to make expensive furniture?

Black walnut

245

What is a product of

Expensive furniture

246

What wood is used to make railroad ties?

Bald Cypress

247

What is a product of bald cypress?

Railroad ties

248

What wood is used to make bowling pins

Hard maple

249

What is a product of hard maple?

Bowling pins

250

What wood is used to make barrels?

White oak

251

What is a product of white oak?

Barrels

252

What wood is used to make houses?

White pine

253

What is a product of white pine?

Structures like houses

254

What are two characteristics of lignin?

Tough and strong

255

Definition of dense

Hard to snap, tough

256

Definition of durable

Long lasting

257

Is chestnut dense or durable?

Durable and not dense bc its easy to work

258

What wood is used to make fences?

Chestnut

259

What is a product of chestnut?

Fences

260

What are knots in wood?

A place where a leaf was lost and over grown

261

Give an example of a leaf with a dicot vein

Ginko

262

What is the oldest tree in the world?

Bristle cone pine

263

Fruit can look polished because of what?

The cuticle

264

Sundews resemble what food?

Sticky lollipop

265

What does a Venus Flytrapp secrete when it closes?

The same as our stomaches

266

What is a whistle pig?

A groundhog

267

What is the genus for a dodder plant?

Cuscuta

268

What transfers DNA between cells for evolution?

Pilus

269

Where do archaea thrive?

Firehole river, Iceland/North Island NZ, Hot Springs, Guisers

270

Kingdom protista is also known as a

Junk drawer

271

Phyla means

Plant

272

Mycota means

Fungi

273

What protist is most common?

Chlamydomonas

274

What organelle is light sensitive?

The eye spot

275

What organelle assembles food storage units for the cell?

Pyrenoid

276

Diatoms cell walls are made of what?

Glass in two parts like a shoebox and lid

277

Superficial melting in the rockies produces sun screening filaments because of what and what is it called?

Red Algae and watermelon snow

278

Top three most abundant organisms are:

Bacteria, yeast, diatoms

279

The word wort means what?

Little plant

280

Witches hair is a

plasmodial slime mold

281

Auger is

red algae that consumes a lot of bacteria

282

What percent of lichen are fungal?

90%

283

What has lead to the amphibian decline?

Chytrids infecting the skin and killing them

284

What keeps commercial bread from molding as fast?

Preservatives

285

Pilobolus does what that is interesting?

Pops its cap off between the grass blades to reproduce