Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (61):
1

Polar covalent bonds

Don’t share electrons evenly

2

Reactive

Atoms that don’t have full valence shells interact with others

3

Covalent bonds

Form between atoms that share electrons

4

Name an isotope if 12C

14C

5

Centimetre=cm=?

0.01m or 1x10^-2

6

Log phase

Exponential bacterial growth

7

Louis Pasteur

-autoclave
-pasteurization
-fermentation
-pure cultures

8

Water is...

Partially positive in one side and partially negative on the other
So water is polar

9

Millimetre=mm=?

0.001m or 1x10^-3m

10

3 kinds of organisms that might be microscopic

Bacteria
Fungus
Virus
Protists

11

Taxonomy

Science of classification

12

Binomial nomenclature

-name made from genus and species (lower case and upper case)
Ex. Homo sapiens
-entire word italicized or underlined
-internationally recognized

13

Atomic number

Number of neutrons

14

Differential media

Makes it easy to tell the difference between microbes

15

Selective media

Suppresses unwanted microbes and encourages wanted microbes to grow

16

All viruses have...

Capsid (protein coat)
Nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
Envelope (membrane)
Spike (protein)

17

amu means

Atomic mass units

18

Requirements of growth

Physical:
-temp
-pH
Chemical:
-carbon
-nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus
-oxygen

19

Name 2 prokaryotic domains

Bacteria
Archea

20

Bacterial growth curve phases

1- lag
2- log
3- stationary
4- death

21

Inert

Atoms with full shells are non reactive

22

Prokaryotes

Cells that do not have membrane bound organelles

23

Ion

Any atom or group of atoms that carry a charge

24

Protons

Positively charged
Mass-1amu

25

What are two subatomic particles found in the nucleus of most atoms?

Protons and neutrons

26

Astrogram=

0.0000000001 or 1x10^-10

27

Hydrogen bonds

Interaction between positive and negative charge of one another. These bonds are weak

28

Anton Van Leevwenhoek

First person to see bacteria
Made 300x magnification lenses to look at sheets with because he was a cloth merchant

29

Paul Ehrlich

Magic bullets-antibiotics
Chemotherapy
Salvarsan (first antibiotic)

30

Valence shell

Outermost shell

31

Alexander Fleming

Discovered naturally occurring antibiotics with less side effects such as penicillin

32

Similarities between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Ribosomes
Plasma membrane
DNA

33

Eukaryotes

Cells that have membrane bound organelles

34

Robert Koch’s objective

This bacteria causes this disease

35

3 kingdom domains
(Taxonomy)

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya

36

Water characteristics

-universal solvent
-resists change in temperature
-takes a lot of energy to make it change states
-cohesive and adhesive
-solid water is less dense then liquid water

37

Atomic mass

Number of protons and neutrons

38

Complex media

Grows heterotrophic organisms

39

3 characteristics of living things

reproduction
Growth
Respiration

40

Thermophile

Bacterium that grows best at higher than normal temperatures

41

Electrons

Negatively charged
Has no mass

42

Psychrophile

Bacteria that likes to grow in low temperatures

43

Robert Hooke

Made the term cell

44

Lazaro Spallanzan

Proved spontaneous generation to be wrong

45

Neutrons

No charge
Mass- 1amu

46

Nanometer=nm=?

0.000000001m or 1x10^-9

47

Isotopes

2 atoms with same number of protons but different number of neutrons and have different atomic masses

48

How many shells do atoms have and what do they hold

3 shells
2
8
8

49

Ignaz Semmelweis

Washing hands with chlorinated lime solutions prevents spread of disease

50

Microbiology

The study of living things that are too small to see with the unaided eye

51

Micrometer=um=?

0.000001m or 1x10^-6m

52

Cell theory

Rudolf virchow-
-all things are made of cells
-all cells come from pre existing cells

53

What does CFU stand for

Colony forming units

54

Mesophile

Bacteria or organism that grows in moderate temperature

55

Francesco Redi

Did pork chop experiment
Refuted spontaneous generation

56

All viruses are obligate intercellular parasites. What does that mean?

It means that all viruses are parasites

57

What is endosymbiosis ?

Explains how eukaryotes have evolved to prokaryotes

58

What is one way that DNA can be used to classify bacteria?

You can look at the DNA Sequencing

59

When placed in water, the compound KCI becomes K+ and CI-. What kind of bond help K+ and CI- together?

Ionic bond

60

In the reaction that formed KCI, was chlorine oxidized or reduced? How do you know?

Reduced because it gained an electron

61

What kind of bond forms between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atom in a water molecule?

Covalent bond has to