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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (86):
1

Where does the Transition Reaction take place? And does it need oxygen?

Mitochondria. And yes oxygen is required

2

What are the starting materials of fermentation?

2 pyruvate and 2 NADH

3

Where does the Krebs cycle happen? Does it require oxygen?

Takes place in the mitochondria and it requires oxygen

4

What are the products of fermentation?

2 NAD+ and CO2+ ethanol or organic acid

5

Why do unicellular cells divide?

They divide to reproduce

6

What is heterozygous?

When we inherit genes that are different alleles

7

What must be transported through the plasma membrane?

Glucose
DNA
Sucrose
Na+

8

What is codominance?

When both alleles are equally expressed.

9

What is a hypertonic solution?

A solution that has a lower concentration of water than the cell. Water will flow out of the cell and it will become flaccid.

10

Alleles

Alternate forms of the same generation

11

What is the point of respiration?

To make energy that cells can use

12

What is cholesterol used for?

Animal cells incorporate this very hydrophobic molecule into their membrane to make them stiffer

13

What are the the building blocks of plasma membranes?

Phospholipids

14

Are Phospholipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Or both?

Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Aka amphipathic

15

Gregor Mendel

Father of inheritance and genetics. Monk who discovered the laws of inheritance.

16

What is the cell cycle?

A series of steps that helps to assure that each daughter cell receives everything it needs to live

17

What is the earths external source of energy?

The sun

18

What is chemiosmosis?

The actual mechanism that the ETS generate ATPs

19

What kind of work do cells do?

Motion of cilia and flagella
Nerve impulse
Muscle contractions

20

What can diffuse through a plasma membrane?

Oxygen
Water
Small lipids
CO2

21

What is the second law of thermodynamics?

No conversion of energy is 100% efficient. Some useful energy is always lost, usually as heat.

22

Where does electron transport occur? Does it need oxygen?

In the mitochondria. Yes it needs oxygen

23

Diffusion

The movement of molecules in solution from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration

24

What is phenotype?

A persons physical characteristics

25

Why do multicellular cells divide?

They divide to grow and develop, maintain tissue, and repair.

26

Fluid mosaic model

This term is used to describe the plasma membrane. Proteins in the membrane are like tiles in a mosaic. Phospholipids replicate grout.

27

What is Haploid or 1n?

A mature egg and sperm cell that has a single copy of each chromosome.

28

What does the centromere do?

Connects the sister chromatids until anaphase.

29

What is homozygous?

When we inherit genes that are the same allele

30

Osmosis

The diffusion if water through a semi permeable membrane

31

What are the start products of Krebs?

2 acertyl CoA

32

What is the starting materials for the Transition Reaction?

2 pyruvate

33

What are catalysts?

Enzymes that speed up reactions.

34

What is the starting material of glycolysis?

Glucose

35

Metaphase

Spindle fibers in place and the chromosomes line up on the division plane

36

What are the stages of mitosis in order?

Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

37

What are the end products of electron transport?

ATPs: 2 from NADH And 2 from FADH2

38

What is catabolism?

Breakdown reactions such as hydrolysis, oxidation, and energy releasing.

39

What are the end products of Transition Reaction?

2 NADH 2 CO2 2 acetyl CoA

40

Where does glycolysis occur in the cell? Does it need oxygen?

In the cytoplasm and no it does not need oxygen

41

Step 5 of respiration is Electron Transport

Almost all the energy is made here. Energy stored in reduced coenzymes is used to synthesize ATP to ADP+P. Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in this Reaction.

42

Step 1 of respiration: Glycolysis

Energy is added to a glucose molecule by adding a phosphate to each group end.

43

What are the starting materials of electron transport?

NADH and FADH2

44

What is step 2 of respiration?

Fermentation

45

Do cells share ATP?

No each cell must make their own ATP

46

What is chromatin?

DNA that is combined with certain proteins.

47

What is energy?

The ability to do work and bring about change

48

What is active transport?

The movement of large, hydrophilic, or charged molecules across the plasma membrane. Energy in the form of ATP Is required.

49

What is Diploid or 2n?

One chromosome from each parent. (Humans)

50

What are the products of Krebs?

4 CO2 6 NADH 2 FADH2 and 2 ATP

51

What is a hypotonic solution?

Solution that has a greater concentration of water than the cell. Water will flow into the cell and it will become turgid.

52

What is mitosis?

Division of the nucleus

53

How are pedigrees read?

Left to right. So oldest to the left and youngest to the right

54

What is anabolism?

Build-up reactions such as dehydration synthesis, reduction, and energy consuming.

55

What are pleiotrophic genes?

Genes that affect many phenotypic traits

56

Anaphase

Spindle fibers start to contract, break the centromere and pull sister chromatids apart.

57

What are the products of glycolysis?

2 ATPs 2 NADH 2 pyruvate

58

What is a gene?

A segment of DNA which is a unit of heredity and influences trait or characteristics by coding for a particular protein

59

Step 3 of respiration: Transition Reaction

Moves the Cardin from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria
Carbon carbon bond is broken and CoA is attached to the remaining carbons

60

What is ATP?

Adenosine triphosphate. The form of energy that cells can use

61

What is cytokinesis?

Division of the rest of the cell.

62

Prophase

DNA condensed into chromosomes, the nuclear membrane disappears and spindle fibers

63

What is incomplete dominance?

When two non dominate alleles are combine

64

What if there is no oxygen available during respiration?

Glycolysis can take place but none of the reactions in the mitochondria will work.

65

What are kinetochores?

It is where spindle fibers attach to chromatids

66

What is facilitated transport?

The movement of large, hydrophilic, or charged molecules across the plasma membrane. Energy is not required.

67

What is genotype?

A persons alleles

68

What is metabolism?

All of the biochemical reactions that happen in a cell

69

What are Epistatic genes?

Genes that repress the expression of other genes

70

Interphase

Chromosomes are not visible

71

Telophase

Chromosomes arrive at the opposite poles of the cell and the cytoplasm will divide (cytokinesis) forming genetically identical cells

72

A plant cell with an internal 3% concentration is placed in a solution if 5% concentration. What will water do?

Flow out of the cell

73

What is the overall reaction of aerobic respiration?

Carbohydrate+oxygen➡️ carbon dioxide +h2o+ ATP

74

What is an isotonic solution?

A solution that has an equal amount of water concentration as the cell. There will be an equal flow of water in both directions.

75

What are chromosomes?

Bundles of chromatin

76

How many ATPs are produced during respiration?

38 ATPs are produced

77

What are sister chromatids?

Identical chromatids

78

Where does fermentation take place? Does it require oxygen?

It occurs In the cytoplasm. And no oxygen is needed

79

What do shaded shapes mean on a pedigree

Traits of interest

80

What is the first law of thermodynamics?

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted

81

What are polygenic traits?

Traits that result from many genes acting together

82

Which direction does water move?

Water moves from high concentration to low concentration

83

What are multifactorial traits?

Traits that are influenced by both genes and the environment. Most traits are multifactorial.

84

In a pedigree which is the female and which is the male? 🔲 ⚫️

🔲 is the male and
⚫️ is the female

85

What happens in the chemiosmosis?

Protons are actively transported into a membrane bag
Protons diffuse out of bad through ATP synthase. It provides enough energy to drive ADP+P to ATP

86

Step 3 of respiration is Krebs cycle

The remaining 2 carbon group go through a series of reactions and 2 ATP are generated