Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (86):
Where does the Transition Reaction take place? And does it need oxygen?
Mitochondria. And yes oxygen is required
What are the starting materials of fermentation?
2 pyruvate and 2 NADH
Where does the Krebs cycle happen? Does it require oxygen?
Takes place in the mitochondria and it requires oxygen
What are the products of fermentation?
2 NAD+ and CO2+ ethanol or organic acid
Why do unicellular cells divide?
They divide to reproduce
What is heterozygous?
When we inherit genes that are different alleles
What must be transported through the plasma membrane?
What is codominance?
When both alleles are equally expressed.
What is a hypertonic solution?
A solution that has a lower concentration of water than the cell. Water will flow out of the cell and it will become flaccid.
Alternate forms of the same generation
What is the point of respiration?
To make energy that cells can use
What is cholesterol used for?
Animal cells incorporate this very hydrophobic molecule into their membrane to make them stiffer
What are the the building blocks of plasma membranes?
Are Phospholipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Or both?
Both hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Aka amphipathic
Father of inheritance and genetics. Monk who discovered the laws of inheritance.
What is the cell cycle?
A series of steps that helps to assure that each daughter cell receives everything it needs to live
What is the earths external source of energy?
What is chemiosmosis?
The actual mechanism that the ETS generate ATPs
What kind of work do cells do?
Motion of cilia and flagella
What can diffuse through a plasma membrane?
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
No conversion of energy is 100% efficient. Some useful energy is always lost, usually as heat.
Where does electron transport occur? Does it need oxygen?
In the mitochondria. Yes it needs oxygen
The movement of molecules in solution from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
What is phenotype?
A persons physical characteristics
Why do multicellular cells divide?
They divide to grow and develop, maintain tissue, and repair.
Fluid mosaic model
This term is used to describe the plasma membrane. Proteins in the membrane are like tiles in a mosaic. Phospholipids replicate grout.
What is Haploid or 1n?
A mature egg and sperm cell that has a single copy of each chromosome.
What does the centromere do?
Connects the sister chromatids until anaphase.
What is homozygous?
When we inherit genes that are the same allele
The diffusion if water through a semi permeable membrane
What are the start products of Krebs?
2 acertyl CoA
What is the starting materials for the Transition Reaction?
What are catalysts?
Enzymes that speed up reactions.
What is the starting material of glycolysis?
Spindle fibers in place and the chromosomes line up on the division plane
What are the stages of mitosis in order?
What are the end products of electron transport?
ATPs: 2 from NADH And 2 from FADH2
What is catabolism?
Breakdown reactions such as hydrolysis, oxidation, and energy releasing.
What are the end products of Transition Reaction?
2 NADH 2 CO2 2 acetyl CoA
Where does glycolysis occur in the cell? Does it need oxygen?
In the cytoplasm and no it does not need oxygen
Step 5 of respiration is Electron Transport
Almost all the energy is made here. Energy stored in reduced coenzymes is used to synthesize ATP to ADP+P. Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in this Reaction.
Step 1 of respiration: Glycolysis
Energy is added to a glucose molecule by adding a phosphate to each group end.
What are the starting materials of electron transport?
NADH and FADH2
What is step 2 of respiration?
Do cells share ATP?
No each cell must make their own ATP
What is chromatin?
DNA that is combined with certain proteins.
What is energy?
The ability to do work and bring about change
What is active transport?
The movement of large, hydrophilic, or charged molecules across the plasma membrane. Energy in the form of ATP Is required.
What is Diploid or 2n?
One chromosome from each parent. (Humans)
What are the products of Krebs?
4 CO2 6 NADH 2 FADH2 and 2 ATP
What is a hypotonic solution?
Solution that has a greater concentration of water than the cell. Water will flow into the cell and it will become turgid.
What is mitosis?
Division of the nucleus
How are pedigrees read?
Left to right. So oldest to the left and youngest to the right
What is anabolism?
Build-up reactions such as dehydration synthesis, reduction, and energy consuming.
What are pleiotrophic genes?
Genes that affect many phenotypic traits
Spindle fibers start to contract, break the centromere and pull sister chromatids apart.
What are the products of glycolysis?
2 ATPs 2 NADH 2 pyruvate
What is a gene?
A segment of DNA which is a unit of heredity and influences trait or characteristics by coding for a particular protein
Step 3 of respiration: Transition Reaction
Moves the Cardin from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria
Carbon carbon bond is broken and CoA is attached to the remaining carbons
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate. The form of energy that cells can use
What is cytokinesis?
Division of the rest of the cell.
DNA condensed into chromosomes, the nuclear membrane disappears and spindle fibers
What is incomplete dominance?
When two non dominate alleles are combine
What if there is no oxygen available during respiration?
Glycolysis can take place but none of the reactions in the mitochondria will work.
What are kinetochores?
It is where spindle fibers attach to chromatids
What is facilitated transport?
The movement of large, hydrophilic, or charged molecules across the plasma membrane. Energy is not required.
What is genotype?
A persons alleles
What is metabolism?
All of the biochemical reactions that happen in a cell
What are Epistatic genes?
Genes that repress the expression of other genes
Chromosomes are not visible
Chromosomes arrive at the opposite poles of the cell and the cytoplasm will divide (cytokinesis) forming genetically identical cells
A plant cell with an internal 3% concentration is placed in a solution if 5% concentration. What will water do?
Flow out of the cell
What is the overall reaction of aerobic respiration?
Carbohydrate+oxygen➡️ carbon dioxide +h2o+ ATP
What is an isotonic solution?
A solution that has an equal amount of water concentration as the cell. There will be an equal flow of water in both directions.
What are chromosomes?
Bundles of chromatin
How many ATPs are produced during respiration?
38 ATPs are produced
What are sister chromatids?
Where does fermentation take place? Does it require oxygen?
It occurs In the cytoplasm. And no oxygen is needed
What do shaded shapes mean on a pedigree
Traits of interest
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted
What are polygenic traits?
Traits that result from many genes acting together
Which direction does water move?
Water moves from high concentration to low concentration
What are multifactorial traits?
Traits that are influenced by both genes and the environment. Most traits are multifactorial.
In a pedigree which is the female and which is the male? 🔲 ⚫️
🔲 is the male and
⚫️ is the female
What happens in the chemiosmosis?
Protons are actively transported into a membrane bag
Protons diffuse out of bad through ATP synthase. It provides enough energy to drive ADP+P to ATP