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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (101)
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1

The name of the nervous system that contains the brain and spinal cord is:

A) the CNS

B) the PNS

C) the ANS

D) none of the above

the CNS

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous systems which consists of thhe brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (or PNS), is composed of nerves leading to and from the CNS.

2

Which glands secrete products outside the body through a duct?

A) exocrine

B) endocrine

C) endocrine and exocrine

D) none of the above

Exocrine

Endocrine glands vs Exocrine glands Endocrine Glands secrete into the internal environment and do not possess ducts (ductless). They are involved in the secretion of hormones needed to influence important bodily processes to be carried. Examples of endocrine glands include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland and adrenal glands. Exocrine Glands secrete into the external environment and have ducts.

They are involved in the secretion of sweat, oil, and other body fluids. Examples of exocrin glands include the sweat glands, salivary glands, and mammary glands.

3

protects the lining of the stomach from stomach acids and digestive enzymes.

A) Mucus

B) Gastrin

C)Intrinsic factor

D) Gastric lipase

Mucus

The stomach's cells produce several kinds of secretions that are collectively called as gastric juice. Each type of gastric juice has their own specific function to aid in digestion of food. The following are some of the stomach's secretions:

1.Mucus-

This is produced by the mucus cells of the stomach and functions by protecting the stomach lining from stomach acids and digestive enzymes.

 

2. Gastrin-

Produced by the endocrine cells of the gastric glands, gastrin functions by

 

3. Intrinsic factor

- Produced by the parietal cells of the gastric glands, intrinsic factor binds to vitamin B12 aiding in its absorption.

 

4. Gastric lipase-

This is produced by the chief cells of the gastric glands. It is responsible for digesting a minor amount of lipid.

 

5. Hydrochloric acid-

This is produced by the parietal cells of the gastric glands. It kills bacteria and is also responsible for converting pepsinogen into pepsin.

 

6. Pepsin-

Produced by the chief cells of the gastric glands, pepsin is referred to as activated pepsinogen. It functions by digesting protein into smaller peptide chains

4

A prominent, narrow ridge of bone.

A) Line

B) Ramus

C) Sinus

D) Crest

Crest

A crest is defined as a prominent ridge. The key word here is "prominent." An example would be the iliac crest.

Choice A. A line or linea is a long, thin projection, often with a rough surface. A line is sometimes called a low ridge.

Choice B. A ramus is a branch off the body and is beyond the angle.

Choice C. A sinus or labyrinth refers to cavity.

5

Which are floating ribs?

A) 1-7

B) 8-10

C) 11 and 12

D) 13 and 14

11-12

Ribs 1-7 are known as true ribs because theey attach directly to the sternum. Ribs 8-10 are known as false ribs becauIse they attach to the sternum via costal cartilage Ribs eleven and twelve are known as floating ribs because they do not attach to the sternum or costal cartilage.

6

In cardiac cycle, diastole is what?

A) Contraction

B) Constriction

C) Relaxation

D) Depolarization

Relaxation

Systolic

This is the top number in the blood pressure reading. This is the pressure measured when your heart beats. It contracts and pushes blood through the arteries to the rest of your body. This force creates pressure on the arteries

Diastolic

This is the bottom number in the blood pressure reading. It indicates the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats.

7

Where is the spine of the scapula?

A) #11

B) #10

C) #3

D) #2

#3 T

he superior border of the scapula runs from the glenoid fossa up to the superior angle. It does not have any muscular or ligamentous attachments. The border is labeled as #11.

The glenoid fossa, also called as glenoid cavity, is a pear-shaped structure formed from the superolateral angle of the scapula. It articulates with the head of the humerus to form the glenohumeral joint or the shoulder joint. The glenoid fossa is labeled as #10.

The spine of the scapula is labeled as #3 and can only be found in the posterior view. Its base corresponds to the level of the spinous process of the 3rd thoracic vertebrae. The scapular spine serves as an important point of attachment to some muscles such as the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and serratus anterior.

The coracoid process is best viewed from the anterior portion of the scapula. It projects anterosuperiorly above the glenoid cavity and also serves as an important attachment site for muscles and ligaments. Among these include the coracoacromial ligament, the pectoralis minor which insert to the structure, and the coracobrachialis and short head of the biceps which originate from the coracoid process. The coracoid process is labeled as #2.

8

This is located in the anterior neck region:

A) pineal

B) thyroid

C) adrenal

D) thymus

 

Thyroid

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the anterior neck. The thymus gland is located behind the sternum and between the lungs. It is only active until puberty. The adrenal glands are located on top of both kidneys. The pineal gland is located behind the third cerebral ventricle in the brain.

9

Which of the following is an example of a biarticular muscle?

A) Gastrocnemius

B) Deltoid

C) Soleus

D) Vastus Lateralis

Gastrocnemius

Biarticular muscles cross two joints. Gastrocnemius crosses the knee and ankle joints. Other biarticular muscles include the long head of biceps brachii, sartorius (crosses both the hip joint and knee), TFL, rectus femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, and some flexors and extensors of the forearm.

10

The walls of this are only endothelium and basement membrane. They are the only vessels which permit exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid.

A) Arterioles

B) Veins

C) Capillaries

D) Venules

Capillaries

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. Arterioles are small arteries. They serve to transport blood to the capillaries.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

Venules are small veins that collect blood from the capillaries.

Capillaries are small blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules; site of gas, nutrients, waste, and hormone exchange.

11

Which of the following portions of the small intestine lies closest to the large intestine?

A) Ileum

B) Duodenum

C) Fundus

D) Jejunum

Ileum

The small intestine, a part of the digestive tract, lies after the stomach. Its main function is for absorption of nutrients, vitamins, electrolytes, and other small molecules that are needed by the body. The small intestine can be divided into 3 parts:

1. Duodenum is the proximal portion of the small intestine.

2. Jejunum, like the duodenum, is where the majority of nutrient absorption takes place. This is the middle portion of the small intestine.

3. ileum is the distal portion of the small intestine. It is connected to the large intestine via the ileocecal junction.

The fundus is the upper part of the stomach that lies next to the cardia (the proximal portion of the stomach that is connected to the esophagus).

12

_______ involves repeated pressured strokes over lubricated skin with a smooth edge. A ceramic Chinese soup spoon, a well-worn coin, a simple metal cap, or piece of jade are commonly used to scrape the skin.

A) TCM

B) Reiki

C) Tui na

D) Gua Sha

Gua Sha

Gua Sha is a traditional Chinese treatment in which the skin is scraped with specific tools (usually a jade tool). It is believed to remove stagnant tissue from injured/ areas and stimulate blood flow and healing.

13

What is the name of this massage technique? 

A) Vichy

B) Shirodhara

C) Cupping

D) Gua Sha

Cupping

Cupping therapy uses local suction on the skin to promote circulation and healing.

14

Which bony landmark is located on the anterior side of the body, 1-2 inches superior to the genitals, and directly below the naval?

A) Pubic Crest

B) Coccyx

C) Greater Trochanter of the Femur

D) ASIS

Pubic crest

How to find the Greater Trochanter: Locate the middle of the iliac crest on the lateral side of the client. Slide finger pads down/distally (towards the toes and still lateral) about 4-6 inches.

The ASIS is on the anterior ilium. It is not directly below the navel.

The Pubic crest is on the anterior side of the body, just superior to the genitals and below the navel.

The Coccyx, or tailbone, is located at the top of the gluteal cleft at the inferior end of the sacrum.

15

______________ refers to joint specific pattern of restriction of passive movements. Cyriax introduced this term.

A) Contractile tissues

B) Inert tissues

C) End feel tissues

D) Capsular patterns

Capsular patterns

James Cyriax first wrote about capsular patterns. This refers to a joint-specific pattern of restriction of passive movements.

A common example occurs in osteoarthritis of the hip. The first sign would be limitations with medial rotation of the hip joint. Next would be flexion of the hip joint.

16

A client states they have a frozen shoulder. What is another name for this condition?

A) Peripheral neuropathy

B) Osteogenesis imperfecta

C) Adhesive capsulitis

D) Osteoarthritis

Adhesive capsulitis

Adhesive capsulitis is another name for frozen shoulder. Peripheral neuropathy is caused by damage to the peripheral nerves. It causes weakness, numbness, tingling, and pain, most often in the hands and feet. It is common in clients with diabetes.

Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle bone disease. It is a genetic disorder that causes bones to break very easily. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is caused by aging, injury, or "wear and tear".

17

What muscle/muscles would you like to assess if you tell your client this: "Kindly do 25 tip toes."

A) Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Biceps Femoris

B) Vastus lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus intermedius, Rectus Femoris

C) Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor

D) Gastrocnemius, Soleus

Gastrocnemius, soleus

 

The muscles responsible for doing tip toes or plantar-flexion of the ankle are the gastrocnemius and soleus. These 2 muscles are also referred to as the Gastrocsoleus complex or the Triceps Surae and are located at the posterior aspect of the lower leg.

18

While waiting in the lobby, a patient suddenly falls to the ground and is experiencing a seizure attack. What would be the first best thing to do?

A) Hold her down and stop the movements.

B) Call 911.

C) Lay the patient on her side.

D) Put a cotton on her mouth.

Lay the patient on her side

Witnessing seizure attacks may truly be frightening however, these are usually not emergency situations. When someone is having a seizure attack, it would be best to lay the patient on her side in order to keep her airway clear. Holding the patient down and restricting her movements should not be done.

It would be better to stay with the patient, cushion her head and push objects away that may harm her. Do not put anything on her mouth. Calling for help such as 911 should be done given the following scenarios:

a) it is the patient's first seizure attack,

b) seizure lasted for more than 5 minutes,

c) seizure lasted for more than 2 minutes than is usual for them,

d) patient has injured herself during the attack,

e) patient has difficulty breathing even after the seizure has stopped and

f) another seizure attack follows without any recovery in between.

19

Your patient exhibits weakness pronating his forearm. All of the following are muscles participate in the movement, except:

A) Pronator quadratus

B) Pronator teres

C) Flexor carpi radialis

D) Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexor carpi ulnaris

The following muscles are responsible for forearm pronation: Pronator quadratus Pronator teres Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris cannot pronate the forearm, but can flex the wrist joint.

20

While in a sitting position, you ask your patient to abduct her shoulders to 90 degrees with shoulders in external rotation and elbows flexed to 90 degrees. While maintaining the position, you ask her to slowly close and open her hands for 3 minutes. What are you testing for?

A) Strength of the Biceps brachii

B) Grip strength

C) Thoracic outlet syndrome

D) Lateral epicondylitis

Thoracic outlet syndrome

In the stem, your patient is performing the Roos stress test or the Elevated arm stress test (EAST). This test is used to confirm for the presence of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). It is considered positive if the patient cannot complete the test due to the presence of paresthesias, pain, pallor, cyanosis, or reproduction of patient's symptoms. The test is considered negative if the patient cannot complete the test due to muscle fatigue only.

21

The change in the quality of movement at the end of the movement is _________________.

A) an empty end feel

B) a soft end feel

C) a hard end feel

D) an end feel

An end feel

An end feel a unique feel feeling a joint has at the end of passive range of motion.

22

SOAP is an acronym for:

A) Symptoms, Observations, Assessment, Plan

B) Subjective, Objective, Action, Plan

C) Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan

D) Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Procedure

Subjective, objective, assessment, plan

 

Subjective

What did the client say? The subjective component includes a summary of what the client says. Their perception of the pain and how it affects their daily living should be included. Notes from other health care providers the client has seen can also be documented here.

 

Objective

What does the massage practitioner feel or see? The objective component includes the massage professionals observations of the client and the results of physical evaluations. Note swelling, skin color or temperature, weakness or muscle tone here. Palpation and gait assessment findings should be noted in this section.

 

Assessment

What did the massage practitioner do? The assessment component includes a summary of notes after treatment is conducted It should indicate whether or not progress made during the session. What is the pain scale number after treatment? Were there changes in range of motion or posture? You should document long and short-term goals and expected functional outcomes.

 

Planning

What is next? The planning component includes suggestions and reminders for future sessions. You may also include home care suggestions for the client.

23

The level of the Iliac crest is at:

A) T4

B) T10

C) L4

D) S2

L4

The Iliac crest is at the level of the 4th Lumbar vertebral area, or L4. The Iliac crest serves as a proximal attachment site for some muscles including the Gluteus Maximus, Gluteus Medius and the Tensor Fascia Latae or the TFL. Choice A. The T4 level corresponds to the nipple area. This level is too high for the Iliac crest. Choice B. The T10 level corresponds to the umbilicus area. This level is too high for the Iliac crest. Choice D. The S2 level corresponds to the Posterior Superior Iliac Spine (PSIS) and the Dimple of Venus. This level is too low for the Iliac crest.

24

In a SOAP note, which letter in the acronym contains the data the therapist takes from palpation?

A) S

B) O

C) A

D) P

Objective

 

Subjective

What did the client say? The subjective component includes a summary of what the client says. Their perception of the pain and how it affects their daily living should be included. Notes from other health care providers the client has seen can also be documented here.

 

Objective

What does the massage practitioner feel or see? The objective component includes the massage professionals observations of the client and the results of physical evaluations. Note swelling, skin color or temperature, weakness or muscle tone here. Palpation and gait assessment findings should be noted in this section. You should document long and short-term goals and expected functional outcomes.

 

Assessment

What did the massage practitioner do? The assessment component includes a summary of notes after treatment is conducted It should indicate whether or not progress made during the session. What is the pain scale number after treatment? Were there changes in range of motion or posture? You should document long and short-term goals and expected functional outcomes.

 

Planning

What is next? The planning component includes suggestions and reminders for future sessions. You may also include home care suggestions for the client.

25

What should you do FIRST when meeting a new client in your office?

A) Introduce yourself and remind the client to shut off their phone.

B) Greet the client by name and a firm embrace.

C) Greet the client by name and shake hands.

Greet the client by name and shake hands.

Greet the client by name and shake hands when meeting for the first time. Embracing (hugging) the client is not appropriate.

26

To assess for the presence of tendinitis of the Biceps Brachii tendon, you select to perform the Yergason's test. External rotation of the test arm is resisted by the therapist. This type of movement is known to occur in the _____ plane.

A) Horizontal

B) Sagittal

C) Coronal

D) Frontal

Horizontal

Movements that involve rotation such as internal and external rotation, pronation and supination all occur in the horizontal plane. This plane divides the body in the upper and lower parts.

27

During palpation, the superior angle of the scapula lies at the level of the _____ spinous process.

A) T2

B) T3

C) T4

D) T7

T2

The superior angle of the scapula lies at the level of the T2 spinous process. The base of the scapular spine lies at the level of the T3 or T4 spinous processes. The inferior angle of the scapula lies at the level between the T7 and T9 spinous processes.

28

The ________________________ are located the proximal end of the tibia. This widened, flat surface is where articulation with the femoral condyles occurs.

A) Fibular Notch

B) Medial Malleolus

C) Tibial Tuberosity

D) Tibial Plateau

Tibial Plateau

 

 

The tibial tuberosity is a superficial knob located on the shaft of the tibia, just distal to the patella. It is an attachment site for the patellar ligament.

The medial malleolus articulates with the tarsal bones to form part of the ankle joint. The tibial plateaus (medial and lateral) are located the proximal end of the tibia. This widened, flat surface is where articulation with the femoral condyles occurs. The fibular notch is located at the distal end of the tibia. This is where the fibula is articulates with the tibia near the foot.

29

Which of the following describes the medial malleolus?

A) The medial malleolus projects farther distally.

B) The medial motion of the ankle is more limited than the lateral motion.

C) Palpation reveals that the medial malleolus has a more posterior location.

D) The medial malleolus is a prominent process of the enlarged distal portion of the tibia on the inner side of the ankle.

The medial malleolus is a prominent process of the enlarged distal portion of the tibia on the inner side of the ankle.

 

The malleoli of the ankles serve as important anatomical landmarks. The medial malleolus is a prominent process of the enlarged distal portion of the Tibia on the inner side of the ankle. The lateral malleolus however, is found on the outer side of the ankle and is considered to be the most distal portion of the fibula. Palpation of the lateral malleolus reveals that it projects farther distally than the medial malleolus. As a result, lateral motion is more limited than medial motion. In addition to that, the lateral malleolus has a more posterior location than the medial one. The axis of the ankle joint is identified by an imaginary line just distal to the tips of the malleoli.

Choice A. This describes the lateral malleolus, not the medial malleolus.

Choice B. This describes the lateral malleolus, not the medial malleolus.

Choice C. This describes the lateral malleolus, not the medial malleolus.

30

In a SOAP Note, which letter in the acronym contains the information about changes in the client’s condition during the massage?

A) S

B) O

C) A

D) P

A

 

Subjective

What did the client say? The subjective component includes a summary of what the client says. Their perception of the pain and how it affects their daily living should be included. Notes from other health care providers the client has seen can also be documented here.

 

Objective

What does the massage practitioner feel or see? The objective component includes the massage professionals observations of the client and the results of physical evaluations. Note swelling, skin color or temperature, weakness or muscle tone here. Palpation and gait assessment findings should be noted in this section.

 

Assessment

What did the massage practitioner do? The assessment component includes a summary of notes after treatment is conducted It should indicate whether or not progress made during the session. What is the pain scale number after treatment? Were there changes in range of motion or posture? You should document long and short-term goals and expected functional outcomes.

 

Planning

What is next? The planning component includes suggestions and reminders for future sessions. You may also include home care suggestions for the client.