Pathology Flashcards Preview

Massage Exam Academy > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (25)
Loading flashcards...
1

Which is not a sign of inflammation?

A) Redness
B) Swelling
C) Hypoxemia
D) Pain

Hypoxemia

Hypoxemia is an abnormally low concentration of oxygen in the blood.

Hyperemia is an excess of blood in a body part. Mild hyperemia is a common response to massage therapy in the skin tissues.

2

What is coccydynia?

A) neck pain
B) bone formation
C) tailbone pain
D) constipation

Tail bone pain

The tailbone, also known as the coccyx, is the triangular bone structure located at the inferior sacrum. It is composed of three to five separate or fused bones.

The medical suffix -dynia means pain.

3

Another name for a sore throat is:

A) Rhinitis
B) Pharyngitis
C) Sinusitis
D) Bronchitis

Pharyngitis

Pharyngitis is another name for a sore throat.

4

Which of the following postural conditions can cause a forward deviation of the head?

A) Lordosis
B) Visceroptosis
C) Kyphosis
D) Scoliosis

Kyphosis

Lordosis- Also called "swayback." The spine of a person with lordosis curves significantly inward at the lower back.

Kyphosis- Kyphosis is characterized by an abnormally rounded upper back, or outward curvature. This can cause the head to have an anterior deviation.

Scoliosis- A person with scoliosis has a sideways curve to their spine. The curve is often S-shaped or C-shape.

5

What is the term used to describe a cancerous tumor?

A) Acute
B) Malignant
C) Benign
D) Chronic

Malignant

Malignant tumors/cells tend to metastasize, spread, and be cancerous. Benign tumor/cells (tumor) lacks the ability to spread or metastasize.

6

When is a massage contraindicated?

A) If the client is in a midst of an asthma attack
B) If the client is in the subacute stage of a cold (over 72 hours old).
C) If the client is in the subacute stage of a sprain (over 72 hours old).
D) If the client has scoliosis (over 72 hours old).

If the client is in a midst of an asthma attack

Massage is indicated for asthma, unless the client is currently experiencing an asthma attack.

7

What special precautions are necessary with a client that has been on synthetic thyroid medication (i.e. Synthroid) for 5+ years.

A) Natural thyroid oils, herbs, and supplements should be suggested as an alternative to their medication.
B) Synthetic thyroid medication contraindicates massage therapy.
C) Someone who has been on synthetic thyroid medication for a long time probably has no significant side effects and no implications for massage therapy.
D) Practitioner should avoid neck massage because of the proximity to the thyroid gland.

Someone who has been on synthetic thyroid medication for a long time probably has no significant side effects and no implications for massage therapy.

"Someone who has been on synthetic thyroid medication for a long time probably has no significant side effects and no implications for massage therapy."

Ruth Werner - A Massage Therapist's Guide to Pathology

8

Statins are used to combat which condition or pathology?

A) Allergic reactions
B) Blood pressure
C) Arrhythmias
D) Cholesterol

Cholesterol

Statins are drugs that can lower cholesterol.

9

Your client suffers from emphysema. Massage may:

A) Temporarily reduce anxiety/stress due to changes in client's breathing.
B) Relax contracted musculature of the accessory muscles which become involved with assisted breathing.
C) Temporarily increase rib cage mobility by relaxing intercostals.
D) All of the above.

All of the above

Emphysema is a noninfectious, chronic respiratory condition, where the walls of the alveoli deteriorate and lose elasticity.

Massage may:

Temporarily reduce anxiety/stress due to changes in client's breathing.
Relax contracted musculature of the accessory muscles which become involved with assisted breathing.
Temporarily increase rib cage mobility by relaxing intercostals.

10

Each of the following are contagious conditions, except:

A) Lupus
B) Shingles
C) Meningitis
D) Mononucleosis

Lupus

Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that characterized by acute and chronic inflammation of various tissues of the body. It can attack any part of the body (skin, organs, or joints). It is not contagious.

11

Kyphosis is ______________.

A) An extreme or exaggerated curvature of the lumbar spine
B) A lateral curvature of the spine
C) An extreme or exaggerated curvature of the thoracic spine
D) An extreme or exaggerated curvature of the cervical spine

An extreme or exaggerated curvature of the thoracic spine

Lordosis- Also called "swayback." The spine of a person with lordosis curves significantly inward at the lower back.

Kyphosis- Kyphosis is characterized by an abnormally rounded upper back, or outward curvature. This can cause the head to have an anterior deviation.

Scoliosis- A person with scoliosis has a sideways curve to their spine. The curve is often S-shaped or C-shaped.

12

Osteomalacia (Rickets) is caused by what vitamin deficiency?


A) A
B) C
C) D
D) E

D

Osteomalacia refers to a softening of the bones, often caused by a vitamin D deficiency.

Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets. Rickets is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate.

13

Which endangerment zone contains the styloid process?

A) Axilla
B) Inferior to the Ear
C) Sciatic Notch
D) Femoral Triangle

Inferior to the ear

The area posterior to the mandible and inferior to the ear contains the facial artery and nerve and the styloid process of the temporal bone.

14

A client reports they have had a cold this week (over 72 hours since onset) and have no fever. You should:

A) explain that this is systemically contraindicated and reschedule.
B) proceed with massage as usual. Massage is indicated if a cold is in the subacute stage over 72 hours.
C) proceed with massage and use eucalyptus essential oil.
D) proceed, but use deep pressure to release toxins.

proceed with massage as usual. Massage is indicated if a cold is in the subacute stage over 72 hours.

Massage is indicated for colds in the sub-acute (post 72 hour) stage, and systemically contraindicated in the acute stage.

15

Which of the following is a hemoglobinopathy that affects primarily African Americans?

A) polycythemia
B) aplastic anemia
C) idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
D) sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia. It is a lifelong disease. Anemia is a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. With Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), red blood cells are misshapen like crescent moons and get stuck in blood vessels.

16

A condition of the nasal septum turning away from midline is called a?

A) sinusitis
B) deviated septum
C) dislocated sinus
D) nasal polyp

Deviated septum

A deviated septum is a condition where the nasal septum turns away from midline usually after an injury. It causes breathing difficulty, recurrent sinus infections and usually requires surgery to correct it.

17

What is a comedone?

A) A pore blocked with sebum
B) A blood clot
C) Another name for a boil
D) An infected tear duct

A pore blocked with sebum

A comedone is plug of sebum and dead skin material blocking the opening of a hair follicle.

18

The incomplete dislocation of the elbow is also known as

A) lateral epicondylitis

B) miner's elbow

C) nursemaid's elbow

D) tennis elbow

Nursemaid’s elbow

Nursemaid's elbow, babysitter's elbow, or pulled elbow is a dislocation of the elbow joint. It is caused by a sudden pull on the extended pronated forearm. The medical term for the injury is radial head subluxation

19

Petechiae is:

A) visual accumulation of pus in skin

B) flake arising from the horny layer

C) slit or linear rupture in skin

D) pinhead sized macules of blood in the skin

pinhead sized macules of blood in the skin

Petechiae is pinhead sized macules of blood in the skin. They may appear red or purple.

They can be caused by injuries, medication, diseases or medical conditions.

20

The yellow coloration of the skin that results from the accumulation of bilirubin in the blood is called:

A) Pustules

B) Cyanosis

C) Vesicles

D) Jaundice

Jaundice

Jaundice yellow coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes that results from the accumulation of bilirubin in the blood.

It is most commonly diagnosed in preterm infants before their liver matures and can remove the excess bilirubin.

In adults, it is caused by various medical conditions that affect the liver or gallbladder.

If you suspect a client has jaundice, reschedule the massage until resolved. It is systemically contraindicated.

21

Which skin neoplasm is associated with an increase in the growth of cells in the keratin layer of the epidermis caused by pressure or friction?

A) callus

B) keloid

C) keratosis

D) leukoplakia

Callus

A callus is a thickened and hardened area of skin tissue. They are especially common in an area that has been subjected to friction.

22

This is administered to the kidneys to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium and water. These medications are administered to treat hypertension and heart failure by reducing the amount of fluid circulating in the blood.

A) diuretic

B) embolus

C) anticoagulant

D) beta-blocker

Diuretic

A diuretic is any medication used to increase the secretion of urine to rid the body of excess sodium and water. These medications are administered to treat hypertension and heart failure by reducing the amount of fluid circulating in the blood.

23

A sprain is a stretching or tearing of a ______________.

A) band of fascia

B) muscle

C) ligament

D) myofibril

Ligament

A sprain is a stretching or tearing of ligaments. Ligaments the tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect one bone to another in your joints.

A strain is an injury to muscle tissue.

Strain and sprain are used interchangeably by clients, but they are different types of injuries.

24

During the course of a massage, the massage therapist notices a pre-existing bruise on the client's leg. The massage therapist should:

A) Avoid the contusion, notify the client where the contusion is located, and document the contusion in SOAP notes

B) Work over the contusion to help break up potential blood clots that may have formed during the course of healing

C) Apply a cold compress to the affected contusion to reduce blood flow to the contusion

D) Reschedule the massage until the contusion has resolved, as contusions are absolute contraindications

Avoid the contusion, notify the client where the contusion is located, and document the contusion in SOAP notes

A contusion, or bruise, is a local contraindication. After the bruise has healed, massage over the area may proceed as normal. Documentation of the bruise and its appearance (color, size, and location) is recommended.

25

When we hear of Osgood-Schlatter disease, it means affectation of which structure?

A) #4

B) #5

C) #6

D) #7

INSERT PHOTO

#6

Osgood-Schlatter disease refers to apophysitis of the tibial tuberosity, labeled as #6 in the photo. In this condition, there will be inflammation of the patellar ligament at the area of the tibial tubercle thus, producing pain and tenderness to the area which is just below the knees. Osgood-Schlatter disease most commonly occurs in boys ages 16 years old and in girls ages 14 years old that puts them at high risk due to rapid physical growth. In addition to that, accumulated stress to the knees especially with jumping and running activities predisposes the teenager to the condition. Upon examination, patient/client may complain of pain under the knee that increases with physical activity and subsides during rest. Tenderness and swelling may be observed at the area of the tibial tubercle as well as tight muscles of the front and/or back of the thigh.

The structure that is affected in Osgood-Schlatter disease is the tibial tuberosity, and not the lateral malleolus, medial malleolus, or intercondylar eminence as suggested by the other choices.