Exam 1- Cognitive approach Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1- Cognitive approach Deck (68):
1

What is the order of MSM

sensory memory
short-term memory
long-term memory

2

How long does sensory memory last

2 seconds

3

how long does STM last?

decays unless rehearsed

4

what is the capacity of STM

5-9 objects

5

what is the capacity and length of LTM

unlimited

6

what supporting evidence does MSM have?

Clive Wearing- has procedural memory, however, has no long-term memory or short-term memory
Miller- Discovered duration of STM

7

evaluation of MSM

S- Clive Wearing
C- Clive Wearing case study doesn't explain how this occurs
O- WMM
U- Shows how we commit things to LTM (SCHOOL)
Reductionist

8

What are the three components of the WMM

the central executive
phonological loop
visuospatial sketchpad

9

What does the central executive do?

Allows us to pay direct attention to certain things in our environment, use in strategic thinking, maths problems and problem-solving

10

what does the phonological loop do

deals with auditory information

11

Visuospatial sketchpad purpose

visual information is stored here

12

Evaluation of WMM

S- Baddeley and Hitch showed we can complete tasks when they are from different parts of the WMM
C- schmolck shows it is more confusing then what is initially thought
O-WMM
U- the Education system also shows how we take in memories
T- strong controls in Baddeleys study
Low ecological validity

13

Episodic and semantic memory has two key concepts what are they?

episodic and semantic memory

14

what is the episodic memory

remembers life events

15

what are context and state cues within episodic memory

context- time referencing and context of a situation
state- emotional state

16

semantic memory is where we store

facts, dates, rules, concepts and knowledge

17

what is referred to as a mental encyclopedia

semantic memory

18

evaluate episodic and semantic memory

S- KC (motorbike) good semantic memory poor episodic
C- Clive Wearing has a procedural memory which is neither
O/T- relies heavily on case studies, MSM is conflicting evidence
U- neuroscience also backs this theory it suggests we have different brain areas for each type of memory

19

Whos theory is MSM

Atkinson and Shiffrin

20

Whos theory is WMM

Baddeley and Hitch

21

Whos theory is the Episodic and Semantic memory

Tulving

22

Whos theory is Reconstructive Memory

Bartlett

23

Key concepts of reconstructive memory

the idea that memories are affected by prior experiences- we reconstruct our own memories

24

what is a schema

schemas allow us to make sense of what is happening and what we should do

25

what is confabulation

a disturbance in memory which can lead to fabrication or a misinterpreted memory

26

emotional perception is

the ability to recognise certain emotions in others

27

Evaluate Reconstructive memory

S- the war of the ghosts, Native American story is westernised
O- MSM states that we remember something through maintenance and elaborative rehearsal
U- Shows us that we can't rely on one witnesses testimony as it can be influenced
T- hard to test as it hard to determine how many changes people made to a story

28

what is the case study in cognitive psychology

HM

29

what is the classical study of cognitive psychology

Baddeley 1996b

30

Why did HM need surgery

he suffered severe epilepsy

31

what parts of the brain were removed from HM

Hippocampus as well as the amygdala the bilateral and medial temporal lobe

32

how was HMs memory affected

unable to produce new memories after the surgery however his LTM was fine

33

What tests were done on HM

he was asked to draw a five-pointed star in the mirror

34

what did the tests on HM show

That his procedural memory was fine, he would improve each time although having no memory of it

35

what conclusions can we make about HM

LTM has different stores and procedural memory was working fine

36

Evaluate HM

G- the information concluded for all only a case study could be generalised to the wider population as brain scans show we have similar brains
A- Showed that hippocampus is a key structure in the transfer of information from STM to LTM
IV- the study has low IV as it is a case study and can't be repeated
E-he cant remember consenting so it raises issue of whether it is ethical

37

what was the aim of Baddeley's study

to see if LTM was different to STM as in STM it showed that acoustically similar words were impaired when trying to memorise however semantically similar words were not

38

Outline the procedure to Baddeley's study

men and women from psychology test rake part in a memory test, they were all given 4 separate lists ( making independent M ). the list appeared on a projector 1 word every 3 seconds. afterwards, they did a memory test regarding digits. then a 1-minute recall task, 15m interference and a surprise recall task follow.

39

acoustic results ( Baddeley)

acoustically words recalled worse at the start, at the end of 4 trails difference was not significant at the end

40

semantic results (Baddeley)

semantically similar words difficult to encode but are easier once in LTM

41

Overall conclusion for Baddeley

STM= acoustic
LTM=semantic

42

Evaluate Baddeley

G- only generalisable to psychology students but 72 participants were male and female
R/V- High control factors
A-Can be applied to learning a language
Ev- low ecological validity

43

is Baddeley or Schmolck the contemporary study

Schmolck

44

What was the aim of Schmolcks study

look at the performance of SM tests and the extent temporal lobe damage and HM in comparison to other patients

45

what was the procedure in Schmolcks study

gave semantic memory test, 9 tests over the course of 3 sessions, 48 items were included eg animals and obejects

46

who were the participants in Schmolcks study

3 with medial temporal lobe damage
HM- MTL damage
2- amnesia
8-'normal' participants

47

what were the results of Schmolcks study

Hippocampal formation patients ( amnesia ) able to complete tasks wheres those with MTL performed the worst, HM was one of the participants who done the worst

48

what were the conclusions of Schmolcks study

MTL sufferers had less difficulty then MTL + patients, this suggests damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex is responsible for semantic memory

49

Evaluate Schmolck

G- not representative of the whole of society
R-standardized, scientific procedure, MRIs used and everyone was given same memory tests.
A- helps to understand the effects of brain damage on memory
E- Consent is an issue for those with memory loss

50

what is the key question for cognitive psychology

How can psychologists understanding of memory help patients with dementia

51

what is dementia?

a disease which damages someones ability to process information including memory, progressive so it gets worse over time

52

what are the symptoms of dementia

loss of memory and ability to function independently

53

how many are affected by dementia in the UK

850,000

54

How many are expected to be affected by 2025

100,000

55

How does MSM explain Dementia

Inability to transfer information from STM to LTM due to dementia

56

How does WMM explain Dementia

Declining central executive means they find it hard to pay attention to certain things

57

How does semantic and episodic memory explain dementia

Different types of memory affected this shows why someone may be able to walk and talk but not able to remember events from a long time ago

58

How does reconstructive memory explain dementia

Shows that people with dementia get their schemas confused which may lead to them getting muddled. understanding situations become harder.

59

Issues with the MSM explanation for dementia

it doesn't explain how procedural and STM memory may still work

60

Issues with the WMM explanation for dementia

Doesn't provide an explanation for the memory loss aspect of dementia

61

Issues with the Semantic and episodic explanation for dementia

Doesn't show us how some procedural memories and LTM become faded.

62

Issues with the Reconstructive memory explanation for Dementia

Doesn't explain the memory loss aspect of it.

63

What was the Cognitive practical

Can schemas improve memory recall?

64

What does our cognitive practical test

reconstructive memory

65

what design was our cognitive practical

independent measures

66

what was the method of our cognitive practical

given 3 minutes to read a short paragraph, then the two groups had to flip the paper with the paragraph over so it couldn't be seen and then it had to be written from memory. one group had a title and one group didn't

67

what was our conclusion for the cognitive practical

whether or not a title is given to an ambiguous paragraph will have no effect on someones ability to recall

68

what were the Mann Whitney U scores for group A and B for our cognitive practical

GA=without title 5.4
GB=with title 5.7
over 5% due to chance factors- reject our experimental hypothesis