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Flashcards in #Exam 2- Learning Approach Deck (58):

What is the summary of classical conditioning

If a behaviour is repeated so many times it becomes learnt. It’s why we expect a response from certain stimulus.


What is a UCS

Smell of food ( something that produces a response naturally )


What is the UCR

Natural reflex to the UCS- salivation at the smell of food


What is a CS

A learnt response


What is the CR

When a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus


What is extinction

When the CR disappears


What is spontaneous recovery

When CR returns in a weakened form


Difference between discrimination and generalisation

Discrimination is when it only occurs for that specific item, where’s generalisation is when the response is for all similar items


What supports classical conditioning

Pavlov and his study on dogs


Difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning

Classical conditioning focuses upon the idea that if a behaviour is repeated so many times it becomes learnt however operant is the idea that we learn behaviour if it was reinforced


Positive and negative reinforcement are part of which theory

Operant conditioning


What theory does SLT work alongside



Summary of SLT

Behaviour is learned through the observation of role models


What are attention, retention and reproduction

Attention- paying attention to a behaviour
Retention-remembering that behaviour
Reproduction- the reproduction of the behaviour


What is vicarious reinforcement

When a person is rewarded for hard work ( positive reinforcement)


How can systematic desensitisation help overcome fears

Aims to replace undesirable fear by replacing it with desirable one such as relaxation


How does flooding work

Having to face your fear head on


How does classical conditioning explain phobias

anxiety provoking UCS is associated with a once neutral stimulus


How does operant conditioning explain phobias

Phobias become worse when repeatedly reinforcing the avoidance of a mildly fearful thing


How can social learning theory explain phobias

We learn phobias through vicarious reinforcement, we observe that fear from a role model, remember it and then repeat that behaviour


Difference between the three Bandura studies

1961- violence witnessed in real life
1963- the violence shown was from a film
1965- see if reward or punishment at the end of violence effected levels of aggression


What is the classic study in learning psychology

Watson and Raynor- see if a 9 month old boy could be conditioned into having a phobia of a white rat.


What was the aim of Becker’s study and how many took part

To investigate how prolonged exposure of TV affected eating behaviours of 63 Fijian girls


Why is anorexia an issue

Affects 1/200 adolescents
85% of young women worry about their looks
Affects 1% of 15-18 year old girls


How does operant conditioning explain anorexia

Positive reinforcement for being thin or negative for being fat


How does social learning theory explain anorexia

People imitate their role models


What is the psychodynamic explanation of anorexia

Women do it as a regression to child ( prevent growing older )


Aim of the learning psychology practical

Conduct an observation into males and females behaviour on public transport covert ppt observation


What were the results of our practicals

2.44 on chi squared analysis, lower then CV of 3.84. This means the results suggest it’s over 5% due to chance factors not gender


evaluation of operant and classical conditioning

s- thorndike and skinner (positve effects from behaviour means it is repeated)
c-classical conditioning and pavlovs dogs- biological theories
o-ignores biological explanation for behaviour
u- reductionist, however explains why we shouldn't expose children to violence
t-scientifically controlled experiments


evaluation of social learning theory

s- williams et al- 80% of programmes watched by high amounts of people- encourages asbo
c-charlton et al found media and environmental factors also to blame
o-depends on motivation also there is a biological explanation
u-shows why we shouldn't show children violence
t- standardized procedure


strengths of systematic desensitisation

active involvement
clear rationale
can be done at a distance
wills and edwards- SD is more effective


what are the weaknesses of systematic desensitisation

can't do it for fears of flying
only useful for certain phobias like spiders
not as useful for evolutionary phobias


what are the strengths of flooding

very quick way of curing a phobia
wolpe- car phobic girl shows flooding to be more effective in general


what are the weaknesses of flooding

might increase phobia ie Barlett had parctical implosion and got to point where she couldn't not see spiders


what was procedure for bandura 1961

72 ppts matched pairs
each child either saw, aggressive or non aggressive or control
watched modelled aggression to bobo doll and see if they would repeat.


results/conclusions of bandura 1961

children who witnessed aggression more aggresisve, opposite for control and non aggressive. boys imitate same sex more
not all behaviour learned from reinforcement


procedure of bandura 1963

96 children
same apart from control was replced with a woman dressed as cat while follwing a script with a bobo doll


results of bandura 1963

no difference between live action and cartoon, control group carried out half aggression
children showed more aggression


evaluation of both the 1961 and 1963 Bandura

G-not generalisable to adults but can be generalised to both genders
R- reliable as it has standardized procedure
A- stops children looking at violent content
v- high IV low EV ( higher in 63 as done at home)
E- consent ?


What was the procedure of bandura 1965

33m 33 f
Children watch short movie before going in room with bobo doll
At end of movie either reward or punished or neither


What were the results and conclusion of bandura 1965

Repeated if behaviour rewarded
Boys imitated more
Younger children copy physical aggression
Vicarious reinforcement does increase imitation of aggressive behaviour


Evaluate bandura 1965

S-rideout and Williams et al
Links to social learning theory
Applicake to pegi
Standardised procedure


What were the results and conclusions of little Albert

Proves phobia could be conditioned
NS associated with unconditioned stimulus ( loud bang ). Caused fear of white rat
Conclusion- children can have fears conditioned into them. Similar things could also gain a fear


Strengths and weaknesses of little Albert

G- one young boy not generalisable
R-controlled experiment
A-applied to see how people get phobias
V- high internal validity and low ecological validity
E-poor ethics CDCDWP


Becker’s procedure

Naturalistic experiment tracking changes which have occurred over time
63 adolescent girls 3 weeks and then 3 years after
Eat 26 survey on attitudes towards eating


Results of Becker

Respondents with TV 3 times more likely to have eat 26 score greater then 20
Self induced vomiting went from 0% 1993 to 11.3% In 1995
40% thought loosing weight was better careers


What was Becker’s conclusion.

Impact of TVS profound
Cultural traditions were against purging which changed when TV introduced
Ideal body weight changed


Strengths of Becker

Studies such as Hamilton and Waller
High ecological validity as it takes places in natural environment
Large sample size
Applicable as it shows how TV can impact eating behaviours


Weaknesses of Becker

Gynocentric- only females
Not an ethical diagnosis made on participants
Consumerism effects - EV- lower internal validity


What is the alternative biological explanation of anorexia

Holland et al - high concordance rates between MZ twins 55% and DZ twins 7%


What is the psychodynamic explanation of anorexia

Regression to childhood shown by women to prevent growing older


What is the hypothesis from our learning psychology practical

Males will show more polite behaviours than females on public transport to and from college


What is the aim of our practical

To conduct an observation into males and females behaviour on public transport comparing good manners against bad. Using covert ppt participation


What was the procedure to your learning practical

Sample 400 ppts
Created coding scheme such as moving back, thank you to driver, giving up seat
Bad manners, pushing and making noise
Pilot study where behaviour was noted down


Results of learning psychology practical

Observed 162 males and 147 females. 35 males has bad manners whereas 47 females did. Over 5% due to chance factors under critical value of 3.84
No correlation between gender and good manners


Strengths of learning psychology practical

Standardised coding system, creates reliability for study
High EV
Gathered both Ql and Qn data


Weaknesses of learning psychology practical

Opportunity sample not generalisable to country
Un ethical- not informed
May have missed behaviour