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Flashcards in #Exam 2- Learning Approach Deck (58)
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What is the summary of classical conditioning

If a behaviour is repeated so many times it becomes learnt. It’s why we expect a response from certain stimulus.


What is a UCS

Smell of food ( something that produces a response naturally )


What is the UCR

Natural reflex to the UCS- salivation at the smell of food


What is a CS

A learnt response


What is the CR

When a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus


What is extinction

When the CR disappears


What is spontaneous recovery

When CR returns in a weakened form


Difference between discrimination and generalisation

Discrimination is when it only occurs for that specific item, where’s generalisation is when the response is for all similar items


What supports classical conditioning

Pavlov and his study on dogs


Difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning

Classical conditioning focuses upon the idea that if a behaviour is repeated so many times it becomes learnt however operant is the idea that we learn behaviour if it was reinforced


Positive and negative reinforcement are part of which theory

Operant conditioning


What theory does SLT work alongside



Summary of SLT

Behaviour is learned through the observation of role models


What are attention, retention and reproduction

Attention- paying attention to a behaviour
Retention-remembering that behaviour
Reproduction- the reproduction of the behaviour


What is vicarious reinforcement

When a person is rewarded for hard work ( positive reinforcement)


How can systematic desensitisation help overcome fears

Aims to replace undesirable fear by replacing it with desirable one such as relaxation


How does flooding work

Having to face your fear head on


How does classical conditioning explain phobias

anxiety provoking UCS is associated with a once neutral stimulus


How does operant conditioning explain phobias

Phobias become worse when repeatedly reinforcing the avoidance of a mildly fearful thing


How can social learning theory explain phobias

We learn phobias through vicarious reinforcement, we observe that fear from a role model, remember it and then repeat that behaviour


Difference between the three Bandura studies

1961- violence witnessed in real life
1963- the violence shown was from a film
1965- see if reward or punishment at the end of violence effected levels of aggression


What is the classic study in learning psychology

Watson and Raynor- see if a 9 month old boy could be conditioned into having a phobia of a white rat.


What was the aim of Becker’s study and how many took part

To investigate how prolonged exposure of TV affected eating behaviours of 63 Fijian girls


Why is anorexia an issue

Affects 1/200 adolescents
85% of young women worry about their looks
Affects 1% of 15-18 year old girls


How does operant conditioning explain anorexia

Positive reinforcement for being thin or negative for being fat


How does social learning theory explain anorexia

People imitate their role models


What is the psychodynamic explanation of anorexia

Women do it as a regression to child ( prevent growing older )


Aim of the learning psychology practical

Conduct an observation into males and females behaviour on public transport covert ppt observation


What were the results of our practicals

2.44 on chi squared analysis, lower then CV of 3.84. This means the results suggest it’s over 5% due to chance factors not gender


evaluation of operant and classical conditioning

s- thorndike and skinner (positve effects from behaviour means it is repeated)
c-classical conditioning and pavlovs dogs- biological theories
o-ignores biological explanation for behaviour
u- reductionist, however explains why we shouldn't expose children to violence
t-scientifically controlled experiments