Exam 2- Learning Approach Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2- Learning Approach Deck (29):
1

What is the summary of classical conditioning

If a behaviour is repeated so many times it becomes learnt. It’s why we expect a response from certain stimulus.

2

What is a UCS

Smell of food ( something that produces a response naturally )

3

What is the UCR

Natural reflex to the UCS- salivation at the smell of food

4

What is a CS

A learnt response

5

What is the CR

When a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus

6

What is extinction

When the CR disappears

7

What is spontaneous recovery

When CR returns in a weakened form

8

Difference between discrimination and generalisation

Discrimination is when it only occurs for that specific item, where’s generalisation is when the response is for all similar items

9

What supports classical conditioning

Pavlov and his study on dogs

10

Difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning

Classical conditioning focuses upon the idea that if a behaviour is repeated so many times it becomes learnt however operant is the idea that we learn behaviour if it was reinforced

11

Positive and negative reinforcement are part of which theory

Operant conditioning

12

What theory does SLT work alongside

Conditioning

13

Summary of SLT

Behaviour is learned through the observation of role models

14

What are attention, retention and reproduction

Attention- paying attention to a behaviour
Retention-remembering that behaviour
Reproduction- the reproduction of the behaviour

15

What is vicarious reinforcement

When a person is rewarded for hard work ( positive reinforcement)

16

How can systematic desensitisation help overcome fears

Aims to replace undesirable fear by replacing it with desirable one such as relaxation

17

How does flooding work

Having to face your fear head on

18

How does classical conditioning explain phobias

anxiety provoking UCS is associated with a once neutral stimulus

19

How does operant conditioning explain phobias

Phobias become worse when repeatedly reinforcing the avoidance of a mildly fearful thing

20

How can social learning theory explain phobias

We learn phobias through vicarious reinforcement, we observe that fear from a role model, remember it and then repeat that behaviour

21

Difference between the three Bandura studies

1961- violence witnessed in real life
1963- the violence shown was from a film
1965- see if reward or punishment at the end of violence effected levels of aggression

22

What is the classic study in learning psychology

Watson and Raynor- see if a 9 month old boy could be conditioned into having a phobia of a white rat.

23

What was the aim of Becker’s study and how many took part

To investigate how prolonged exposure of TV affected eating behaviours of 63 Fijian girls

24

Why is anorexia an issue

Affects 1/200 adolescents
85% of young women worry about their looks
Affects 1% of 15-18 year old girls

25

How does operant conditioning explain anorexia

Positive reinforcement for being thin or negative for being fat

26

How does social learning theory explain anorexia

People imitate their role models

27

What is the psychodynamic explanation of anorexia

Women do it as a regression to child ( prevent growing older )

28

Aim of the learning psychology practical

Conduct an observation into males and females behaviour on public transport covert ppt observation

29

What were the results of our practicals

2.44 on chi squared analysis, lower then CV of 3.84. This means the results suggest it’s over 5% due to chance factors not gender