EXAM #1: DIAGNOSING GI INFECTIONS Flashcards Preview

Infectious Disease > EXAM #1: DIAGNOSING GI INFECTIONS > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #1: DIAGNOSING GI INFECTIONS Deck (42):
1

What is a the major host defense against esophagitis?

Motility

2

What are the typical pathogens that cause esophagitis?

1) Candida
2) HSV
3) CMV

3

What is the major host defense against gastritis?

Acidity

4

What is the typical pathogen that causes gastritis?

H. pylori

5

What are the typical pathogens that causes infectious diarrhea?

1) C. diff
2) E. coli
3) Salmonella
4) Shigella

6

What are the sx. of esophagitis?

1) Dysphagia
2) Retrosternal pain
3) Fever

7

Why is it important to determine if a patient has Candida cruzi?

This is resistant to the normal first line therapy (fluconazole)

8

What causes ulcerative esophagtitis?

1) HSV
2) CMV

9

You suspect a patient has infectious esophagitis; however, diagnostic work-up is negative. What should be next on your differential diagnosis?

GERD

10

What inclusion is associated with HSV?

asdf

11

How is candida esophagitis treated?

1) Oral fluconazole
2) IV echinocandin

or

Amphoterocin B

12

How is HSV esophagitis treated?

Acyclovir

13

How is CMV treated?

Valganciclovir or Ganciclovir

14

How is H. pylori non-invasively diagnosed?

1) Urea breath test*
2) Stool antigen test

15

If you have to do an endoscopy for H. pylori infection, what is the first choice test?

Biopsy urease test

16

How is H. pylori treated?

1) PPI + amoxicillin, then
2) PPI + clarithromycin + tinidazole

17

For patients that are allergic to clarithromycin, what should you do for H. pylori?

Quad therapy:
1) Bismuth subsalicylate
2) TCN
3) Metronidazole
4) Omeprazole

18

How long to you have to wait to re-test urea breath test and stool antigen s/p H. pylori treatment?

6-8 weeks

19

In taking a patient history, what is the most important feature to ask about when a patient has diarrhea?

Duration
- Less than 2 weeks= infectious
- More than 4 weeks= non-infectious

20

What is unique about the morphologic appearance of v. cholerae?

Curved* gram negative rod

21

What is C. perfringens highly associated with?

Home canned foods

22

What is Bacillus cereus highly associated with?

Rice

23

What is enterotoxigenic E. coli highly assocaited with?

Traveling to foreign countries

24

What is Salmonella highly associated with?

Caesar salad

25

What are the epidemiological clues that differentiate between Rotavirus and Norovirus?

Rotavirus= daycare
Norovirus= nursing home/ cruise ship

26

What is Hepatitis A highly associated with?

Overcrowding

27

What organism is highly associated with swimming pools?

Cryptosporidium

28

How long does it take to get ill from a preformed toxin?

6-8 hours

29

How long does it take to get ill from an enterotoxin toxin?

8-72 hours

30

How long does it take to get ill from a cytotoxin?

Days

31

List the non-inflammatory diarrheas.

- V. cholerae
- Enterotoxigenic E. coli

32

List the inflammatory diarrheas.

- Shigella
- Salmonella
- Campylobacter jejuni

33

What is the difference between inflammatory and non-inflammatory diarrhea?

Non-inflammatory= watery (voluminous)

Inflammatory=
- Bloody/mucus
- Fever
- Positive fecal leukocytes

34

What is unique about E. coli O157:H7

- Inflammatory diarrhea (bloody) but no fever
- NO abx, may give patient HUS

35

Is it recommended to test stools of an asymptomatic patient for C. diff? What about for cure s/p treatment?

No- neither

36

What is emerging as the diagnostic of choice for C. diff?

PCR Toxin Gene Detection

37

If a patient has a positive endoscopy for PMC, do you need to do further testing?

No

38

How is C.diff treated?

1) Metronidazole
2) Vancomycin (more severe)

39

What route does Vancoymin need to be given for C. diff?

Oral, NOT IV

*Can be given as an enema if ileus with PMC

40

If a patient has chronic c. diff, what should you do?

- Normal regimen for first recurrence
- AFTER FIRST RECURRENCE, NO METRONIDAZOLE
- Vancomycin with second or later recurrence

41

Should probiotics be given to patients with recurrent C. diff?

No

42

When should you AVOID antiperistaltic agents in lower GI infections?

1) Fever
2) Bloody stool