EXAM #1: UTI Flashcards Preview

Infectious Disease > EXAM #1: UTI > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #1: UTI Deck (28):
1

What does upper urinary tract refer to?

Above the vesicoureteral valves

*This is the valve the the junction of the bladder and the ureters that prevents retrograde flow of urine

2

What does lower urinary tract refer to?

Below the vesicoureteral valves

3

What is the differene between a complicated and uncomplicated UTI?

Complicated= involvement of tissue structures or presence of co-morbidities

Uncomplicated= locoal effects ONLY without co-morbidities

4

What does pyelonephritis refer to?

Inflammation of the kidney, calyces, and pelvis

5

What is balanitis?

Inflammation of the glans penis

6

What does recurrence refer to in a UTI?

3+ UTIs in a single year

7

What does relapse refer to in a UTI?

Recurrence in the SAME MONTH, with the SAME ORGANISM

8

What does reinfection refer to in terms of a UTI?

Relapse AFTER 1 month, with a DIFFERENT organism

9

What is the definition of a UTI?

Greater than 10^5 CFU/mL of a single bacterial species in a clean catch urine

10

What is the most common cause of a UTI?

E. coli

11

When would you treat a patient with a clean catch urine showing LESS than 10^5 CFU/mL of a single bacterial species?

1) Pregnancy
2) Renal transplant
3) Urological surgery

12

When would you NOT treat a patient with a clean catch urine showing LESS than 10^5 CFU/mL of a single bacterial species?

1) Nursing home
2) Patient with catheter

13

What is the importance of the ratio of epithelial cells to WBCs in a UA?

Epithelial cells= WBC, then specimen is LIKELY CONTAMINATED

*Can't make any decisions on infection from this

14

What elements of a UA are used to diagnose a UTI?

1) pH
2) Specific gravity
3) Nitrities
4) Leukocyte esterase
5) WBC
6) RBC

15

In a split catch sample, what does the first sample usually reflect?

Urethra

16

In a split catch sample, what does the second sample usually reflect?

Bladder

17

Look at the first case. Where is the inflammation?

Urethra

18

What is the likely diagnosis based on statistics?

Gonorrhea and/or chlamydia

19

What is the empiric treatment for chlamydia?

1) Ceftriaxone 250mg IM
2) Azithromycin 1g PO

20

Look at Case #3, what is the initial interpretation of the split catch urine?

Cystitis

21

What is the first line antibiotic for acute uncomplicated cystitis in a female?

TMP-SMX

22

What does lactate measure?

Tissue hypoperfusion

23

What is a normal BUN/creatinine ratio?

20:1

24

What is an elevated creatinine?

0.7- 1.3

25

What is the black spot on the CT in case 4 in the right kidney?

Air in the renal pelvis

*Gas from bacteria

26

What do procedure do you want to avoid in pyeloenephritis?

Foley catheter

27

If that patient in case #4 has an obstructing renal stone causing an abscess, what is the appropriate treatment?

Surgery

28

What drugs were recently moved further down the treatment algorithm for UTI?

Fluoroquinolones