EXAM #2: HIV II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #2: HIV II Deck (23):
1

When does most perinatal transmission of HIV occur?

During vaginal delivery

2

When in a pregnancy is there the highest risk for vertical transmission of HIV? What are the implications?

Late in third trimester

*Screen/ diagnose HIV early in mother and treat her

3

What are the precautions that are taken to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV?

1) HAART to Mom
2) Post-exposure prophylaxis to baby
3) Consider c-section?

4

At what CD4 T-cell count can secondary syphilis occur?

Any CD4 count

5

How does the rash on the thorax/ palms-soles compare to a condyloma lata?

Condyloma lata= raised lesion that is FULL of treponema

6

How is PCP diagnosed in AIDS patients?

Bronchoalveolar lavage

7

What is the first line treatment for PCP in AIDS?

TMP-SMX

8

What is the difference between primary prophylaxis and secondary?

Primary= no disease, trying to prevent it
Secondary= had disease, want to prevent it from coming back

9

What is late diagnosis of HIV?

Patient is diagnosed with HIV when they already have AIDS

10

Why do you want to have patients with HIV diagnosed early vs. late?

Early diagnosis= normal life-expectancy IF compliant
Late diagnosis= 10-30 years of life-lost

11

When do you start primary prophylaxis for PCP?

CD4+ less than 200

12

When do you start primary prophylaxis for toxoplasmosis?

CD4+ less than 100

13

When do you start primary prophylaxis for MAC?

CD4+ less than 50

14

What are the guidelines for starting HAART or cART?

Any HIV+ patient should be treated

15

What drug is the CCR5 inhibitor?

Maraviroc

*Note that this CANNOT be used for a R4 trophic virus

16

If a drug blocks gp41, what is its mechanism of action?

Fusion inhibitor

17

What is the general mechanism of action of the NRTIs and NNRTIs?

Inhibition of reverse transcriptase

18

What two drugs are used for PrEP and post-exposure prophylaxis?

1) Tenofovoir
2) Emtricitabine

19

What drug requires HLA genomic testing?

Abacavir

*If positive, could develop life-threatening anaphylaxis

20

What is IRIS?

Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

*Atypical inflammatory disorders associated with immune recovery

21

What NNRTI is teratogenic?

Efavirenz

22

What is the adverse effect associated with protease inhibitors?

Decrease the efficacy of birth control

23

What three things can AIDS increase the risk for?

1) Metabolic syndrome/ dyslipidemia
2) Cardiovascular disease
3) Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus