EXAM #2: MAJOR VIRAL PATHOGENS Flashcards Preview

Infectious Disease > EXAM #2: MAJOR VIRAL PATHOGENS > Flashcards

Flashcards in EXAM #2: MAJOR VIRAL PATHOGENS Deck (37):
1

Where do all Herpes viruses replicate?

Nucleus

2

Where do Herpes viruses remain latent?

Ganglion

3

How is Herpes transmitted?

- Direct contact with active lesions
- Asymptomatic shedding/secretion

*Can contract Herpes from asymptomatic partner

4

What is the tropism for HSV-1 and HSV-2?

HSV-1= oral mucosa
HSV-2= genitals

5

In classic HSV-1 infection, which is usually more severe, primary infection or reactivation?

Primary infection

6

What are the complicated HSV-1 oral infections?

1) Gingivostomatitis
2) Eczema herpeticum
3) Erythema multiforme

7

What type of genital lesion is associated with HSV-2?

Painful vesicular lesions

8

What is HSV proctitis? What patient population is this most common in?

HSV leading to inflammation of the prostate; more common in HIV patients

9

What is wrestler's herpes called?

Herpes Gladiatorum

10

What do you need to remember about HSV eye infections?

Can damage the retina i.e. it is an emergency

11

What radiologic sign is associated with HSV encephalitis?

Temporal lobe enhancement

12

What do you need to do if you have a patient with suspected HSV encephalitis b/c of temporal lobe enhancement?

Antvirals

13

What is Mollaret Syndrome?

Recurrent meningitis associated with HSV

14

How are HSV infections diagnosed?

1) Clinical
2) Tzanck smear (multi-nucleated giant cells)
3) Culture/PCR

15

What causes resistance to acyclovir?

Lack of thymidine kinase

16

What is the major adverse effect associated with acyclovir?

Crystal-induced renal failure

17

What does VZV cause in primary infection? What about reactivation?

Primary= chicken pox
Reactivation= herpes zoster i.e. shingles

18

What is the characteristic rash seen with Chickenpox?

Different stages of vesicles

19

How is VZV transmitted?

1) Aerosolized droplets
2) Direct contact with vesicle fluid

20

How do you know when VZV is no longer contagious?

All vesicles are crusted

21

What is the most common visceral complication of VZV?

Varicella pneumonia

*Associated with smoking, pregnancy, and immunosupression

22

What antiviral is used for treatment of VZV?

Acyclovir

*Vaccine prior

23

What is treatment of Herpes Zoster aimed at treating/ preventing?

Acute neuritis and post-herpetic neuralgia

24

What is the treatment for Herpes Zoster? When should treatment be started?

- Ideally, start within 72 hours
- Acyclovir

25

How does EBV differ from the other Herpes viruses?

Does not have a cytopathic effect; rather, transforms in cells

26

Where is EBV latent in the body?

B and T-cells

27

How does EBV infection in kids and adolescents differ?

Adolescents= infectious mono
Kids= typically subclinical

28

What can cause a rash in EBV infection?

Ampicillin

29

What is the normal treatment for EBV infection?

Supportive care/ no contact sports

30

What lymphporliferative disorder highly associated with EBV?

HLH

31

How is EBV diagnosed?

1) Heterophile antibody (monospot)
2) Antibodies VCA IgG/IgM

32

Where does CMV remain latency?

Multiple cell types/organ tissues

33

What is the histologic appearance of CMV?

Large cells with internucelar "owl eye" inculsions

34

What does CMV cause?

CMV mononucleosis (esp. in sexually active young adults)

35

How is CMV treated?

Ganciclovir

36

What are the consequences of congenital CMV?

1) Developmental delay
2) Hearing impairment
3) Ocular abnormalities

37

How is CMV diagnosed?

PCR