Flashcards in Exam 1: Infectious & Communicable Disease Deck (52)
Describe the five steps of the infectious process.
1. infectious agent 2. reservoir: place for agent to live 3. exit from reservoir. 3. vehicle of transmission. 4. portal of entry: mucous membranes. 5. susceptible host.
What is passive immunity?
antibodies produced in another host and given: example: breast milk
What type of immunity is immunizations?
active: foreign substance that triggers an immune response: producing antibodies.
What are some viral prodromal symptoms?
fever, malaise, HA, lack of appetite.
When is a person most contagious?
before they even know they have a virus
What is the first symptom of a sickness and last to go away?
What are some common signs of an infection that kids usually get?
skin rash, vomiting and diarrhea.
What are some first signs of sepsis?
rapid RR, change in metal status, reduced alertness, confusion.
What is the best way to control a fever?
When do you give patients meds for fever?
if they are uncomfortable and 103-104, if not eating, prone to febrile seizure.
After how long do you call the doctor about your child's fever?
How much does meds decrease a fever?
True or False: tx of a fever can prolong illness.
True or False if a neonate under 12 wks has a fever you should call doctor before you tx.
What temp is high in neonate? toddlers?
>100.4 and > 105.8
What is the hand foot mouth disease also known as?
coxsackievirus: minor and short lived
describe the fifth disease.
begins with low grade fever, HA, mild cold like symptoms, illness then seems to be gone until a rash appears a few days later.
What disease has slap cheeks followed by fine lacy rash?
What is Hepatitis A caused by?
What are some s/s of hep A?
abdominal pain, N/V, diarrhea, jaundice,
True or False those who have hep B you should check their GI system.
What are some s/s of influenza?
fever, cough, malaise, body aches, not typical URI
What is rubella caused by?
What is rubella?
form of measles, bad rash with no tx.
What is different about varicella (chicken pox)?
multiple stage of sores
When is varicella not contagious?
no new lesions and all are scabbed.
caused by varicella virus, usually have pain first without a rash then rash appears: unilateral and in one area, doesn't cross midline.
What is one of the most common causes of diarrhea?
What are some s/s of rotovirus?
fever, diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration
True or False: Poliomyelitis is a reportable disease.
What is measles?
rash caused by mobillivirus, can feel it, bright red
What is the only way to protect from measles?
what is roseola? who is it commonly seen in?
pink rash under the skin, really high fever but don't act different. very common in 6-24 months.
What happens in mumps?
True or False: mumps is not a reportable disease.
What are some concerns with mumps?
air way management, and can cause sterility probs in boys
What is the number one reason for bacterial meningitis?
What is meningitis? s/s?
inflammation of meninges of brain and spine, nuchal rigidity, change in mental status, rash, fever.
what disease is very common in kids under 5 and college kids?
What stages is pertussis(whooping cough) contagious?
1 and 2
True or False: pertussis is a reportable disease and patient should be isolated until ATB complete.
Describe stage 1, 2, and 3 of pertussis
1: cold symptoms 7-14 days
2: violent, dry, hacking cough 30 days
3: harsh, dry cough can continue
True or False: lyme disease is caused by spirochete which is transmitted by tick.
Describe stages of lyme disease.
1: malaise, fatigue, HA, stiff neck, joint pains, bulls eye rash
2: pain and swelling of joints especially knees
3: CNS changes
True or false: in lyme disease you always see the rash where the tick bit you.
True or false: most ppl recover from west nile virus.
What are some preventable measures for west nile virus?
clothing at dusk, repellants, eliminate standing water areas
What are some ways to get tetanus?
spore in soil, dust, excretions of animals
True or false: tetanus causes contractions of all muscles.
True or false: if your child has lice it is important you only treat the child's hair and their room.
false: treat the whole house.
What is reye's syndrome?
rash, vomiting, liver damage cause unknown, associated with giving aspirin to tx fever.