Exam # 1 - Lecture Notes 1-6 Flashcards Preview

BSC 2010 - Biology I > Exam # 1 - Lecture Notes 1-6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam # 1 - Lecture Notes 1-6 Deck (197):
1

What are the eight characteristics of life?

1) Regulated
2) Responsive
3) Reproduces
4) Uses energy
5) Grows
6) Carries instructions
7) Complex/ordered
8) Well-adapted

2

Does a bacteria cell qualify as life?

Yes, absolutely

3

Is a virus alive?

No. The virus is not alive because it depends so fundamentally on the cell in order to accomplish the qualities of life

4

Nothing less than a ____ is alive.

cell

5

What did Stanley Miller get when he did his experiment?

Amino acids

6

How many elements occur naturally?

92

7

How many elements are essential to life?

25

8

Which four elements make up 96% of living matter?

CHON

9

Which elements make up the remaining 4%?

Na, P, S, Ca, K, Mg, Cl

10

The remaining fourteen elements are each present less than ___%. These elements are called _____ elements.

.01%. Trace

11

If the human body lacks iodine you get ______.

goiter

12

Atoms combine into ________.

molecules

13

______ are used for individual atoms and molecules...really tiny matter that you can't even see.

Dalton's

14

The electron is important for two reasons, what are those two reasons?

1) Chemical bonding
2) Storing energy - POTENTIAL ENERGY

15

______ are atoms that vary in their number of neutrons.

Isotopes

16

If you are studying the chemistry of the cell, this is referred to as...

metabolism

17

In biology, it's not electrons flowing through a copper wire...it's electrons in...

biological molecules

18

Why are different elements required for life? Does it matter where an element is on the periodic table? Does it tell us anything about its properties?

Yeah, HOW IT REACTS

19

The various atoms want to fill...

their outer shells

20

Behavior depends on the ______ electrons.

valence

21

What are electrons called in the outer shell?

Valence electrons

22

Which theory more accurately describes an electrons position in space?

Orbital theory

23

How many orbitals are contained in the first shell?

One orbital

24

What's the orbital called in the first shell and what's its shape?

s orbital, spherical

25

How many orbitals are found in the second shell?

FOUR orbitals

26

How many electrons does one orbital hold?

TWO electrons

27

The first shell can hold a maximum of ___ electrons. The second shell can hold ____ orbitals, and each one can hold a maximum of _____ electrons.

two, four, two

28

The _____ rule means you want to have _____ electrons.

octet rule, eight electrons

29

If you're hydrogen, you want to have ____ electrons to complete your shell, since only one electron fills its first shell.

two

30

When a hydrogen bonds with another hydrogen, it forms a covalent bond. H-H. That new hydrogen is no longer an atom, but a ________.

molecule.

31

How many covalent bonds will oxygen form?

TWO COVALENT BONDS because it already has six electrons in its second shell.

32

Define a molecule...

Atoms held together by covalent bonds.

33

How many covalent bonds does phosphorus form?

FIVE covalent bonds. Three single covalent and two double covalent

34

Phosphorus in biology is typically bonded to _______.

oxygen

35

Is water charged?

NO, WATER IS NOT CHARGED

36

There are _____ charges within water due to unequal sharing of electrons.

partial

37

Is having partial charges within a molecule the same thing as being charged?

No.

38

Where do you expect partial charges to be in the biological molecule?

CHON

39

In CHON, which are more electronegative and which are less electronegative?

More electronegative = O and N
Less electronegative = C and H

40

What happens when you get either O and N with either C or H?

You get partial charge

41

We are ______ based.

carbon

42

If your biological molecule has either _____ or _____ in it...you'll have partial charge.

Oxygen or nitrogen

43

What is a polar covalent bond?

A bond where the sharing of electrons are unequal

44

Oxygen contains two polar/non-polar covalent bonds?

two non-polar covalent bonds because they have equal electronegativity, and also because their electrons share equally

45

What is a non-polar covalent bond?

A bond where the electrons equally share

46

Hydrogen contains a polar/non-polar covalent bond?

non-polar covalent bond

47

Is methane polar or non-polar?

non-polar because no partial charge and the electrons share equally

48

Name the four weak interactions

ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, van der Waals interactions and hydrophobic interactions

49

Ionic bond, weak or strong in biology?

WEAK

50

Compounds held together ionically are called _____.

salts

51

Can a molecule be an ion?

Yes

52

Ammonium chloride...what is that?

The chloride is an anion and the ammonium is actually the cation...it has a positive charge...so they stick together...salt

53

Inorganic phosphate....molecule?

Yes, it's a molecule...BUT IT'S ALSO AN ION BECAUSE WE GAINED AN ELECTRON!

54

Bio molecules usually bear partial and full charges which dictates their _______ and _______.

structures and functions

55

What's the charge of DNA?

Negative charge because of the ACID

56

The strength of an ionic bond depends on the _______.

environment

57

In water, ionic bonds have _/__ the strength of covalent bonds.

1/10th

58

The cell itself is __% water.

70%

59

What is required in a hydrogen bond?

1) hydrogen - must have a partial charge
2) the hydrogen needs to be bonded to oxygen or nitrogen

60

Are hydrogens in water suited for hydrogen bonding?

Absolutely

61

Van der Waals interactions can occur between...

two non-polar chemical groups

62

Van der Waals interactions can occur between two non-polar chemical groups which means...

no partial charge

63

What are transient partial charges?

Temporary, brief, not permanent

64

Hydrophobic interactions can also occur between...

two non-polar chemical groups

65

What chemical groups don't like water?

non-polar chemical groups don't like water

66

Why don't non-polar chemical groups like water?

They're not charged...they don't have partial charge.

67

What are the two ways in which weak interactions are important?

Weak interactions work both intermolecularly and intramolecularly...
They work intErmolecularly to hold two molecules togEther.
They work intrAmolecularly to establish the molecule's 3D shApe.

68

What four reasons determine shape?

1) which atoms are bonded to each other
2) the orbitals
3) Intramolecular weak interactions
4) Environmental conditions - oil sticks together in water

69

When covalent bonds form, valance shell orbitals _______ and _______.

combine and rearrange

70

Which atoms among CHON does this type of hybridization pertain to?

Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen

71

Sp3 hybridizations happens when these three atoms form...

SINGLE COVALENT BONDS

72

When a carbon forms with hydrogen to form methane, you get...

SP3 HYBRIDIZATION. SINGLE COVALENT BONDS.

73

What is it that makes the chain fold?

Weak interactions

74

__________ weak interactions help determine shape.

intramolecular

75

At chemical equilibrium, what is equal?

The rates forwards and the rates backwards

76

Does equilibrium happen in the cells?

NO. Equilibrium is a principle that is applicable to the test tube where we can isolate a reaction.
Reactions in the cell run in metabolic pathways, THERE IS NO EQUILIBRIUM IN THE CELL.

77

When did the Earth form?

4.54 billion years ago

78

When did life appear?

3-4 billion years ago

79

How long did life remain in water?

About 3 billion years

80

How many years ago did life move to land?

About 500 million years ago

81

How many hydrogen bonds can a single water form?

FOUR

82

Water sticks to itself...this is called _______.

cohesion

83

Water sticks to other substances that have partial or full charge...this is called ________.

adhesion

84

Water also has high ______ _____.

high specific heat

85

Why does it take a lot of energy to increase temperature in water?

First you have to break the hydrogen bonds. So energy goes into breaking the hydrogen bonds, and then the water molecules start moving more quickly. It takes more heat.

86

What is a macromolecule?

A molecule that is over a 1000 daltons

87

Hydrophilic vs hydrophobic...

Hydrophilic = water loving. Something that is hydrophilic does not mean a substance is also soluble.
Hydrophobic = water fearing. Avoid water.

88

A mole weighs the number of _____ of an atom or molecule that is numerically equivalent as the number of ______ in its atomic weight.

grams, daltons

89

1 atom of carbon would weigh...

12 daltons

90

A mole of carbon would weigh...

12 grams

91

What does a mole of sucrose weigh? (C12H22O11)

12x12 + 22x1 + 11x16 = 342 daltons.

92

How many molecules does a mole of sucrose (342 daltons) weigh?

342 x 6.02x10^23

93

Ethanol weighs 46g...how many molecules does it contain?

6.02x10^23 molecules

94

How many daltons are equal to one gram?

6.02x10^23

95

How many atoms are in a mole of sucrose (C12H22O11)?

12 + 22 + 11 = 45 atoms.
45 x 6.02x10^23

96

A substance is a base if it ______ the proton concentration.
An acid is a substance that will ______ the proton concentration by dissociating.

reduces, increase

97

Cellular pH is maintained by _______.

buffers

98

What did vitalism say?

Biological molecules are the result of a life force

99

Wöhler did an experiment that contradicted vitalism. He took the compound _________ _______ and he converted it into ____.

ammonium cyanate, urea

100

What is the structure of ethane?

Two tetrahedral pointing directly at each other

101

What do double bonds do to the shape of the molecule?

They create a planer. Flat.

102

What are compounds made up or carbon an hydrogen called?

Hydrocarbons

103

Hydrocarbons are....

ENERGY-RICH

104

Why are hydrocarbon's energy rich?

NON-POLAR COVALENT BONDS. Non-polar covalent bonds make for very energetic molecules.

105

When a hydroxyl is present in a chemical group, what does it make that chemical group?

An alcohol

106

If you have a hydroxyl, you are technically an ______.

alcohol

107

What's important about carboxyl groups?

They have a tendency to ionize...

108

What will the charge of a single carboxyl group contribute to a molecule?

1- (negative). Also think, carboxylic acid (1-)

109

Why is pH important?

It dictates the behavior of ions

110

At cellular pH, if you have a carboxyl group, then you'll lose your...

proton and then you will have a unit of negative charge. Now you can stick to something positive.

111

What is the most important biomolecule?

Protein

112

What is the building block of a polymer called?

Monomer

113

The molecular chain is called a _______.

Polymer

114

Adding one monomer to another monomer, one at a time, is the way that we build all basic polymers. This is called a _______ reaction because we...

dehydration reaction because we removed water.

115

Dehydration reactions require/releases energy?

Require energy, just like it requires energy to build a house of cards

116

To build a polymer of four monomers, you need...

three dehydration reactions

117

We can disassemble polymers...we call this _______.

digestion

118

Now...adding a water molecule we are breaking with water...what is this called?

hydrolysis

119

A hydrolysis reaction requires/releases energy?

Releases energy. Just as energy is released, the house of cards tumbles down

120

Building ______ energy, breaking ______ energy.

requires, releases

121

Which reaction consumes water? USES water?

Hydrolysis

122

Which reaction produces water?

Dehydration

123

Where else does hydrolysis happen?

Digestion, outside the cells

124

Carbohydrates are effectively _______.

sugars

125

The sugar is the _______.

monomer

126

If you put two monosaccharides together, you get what?

A disaccharide

127

If you put anywhere from 3-50 monosaccharides together...you get an ___________.

oligosaccharide

128

More than 50 monosaccharides you are a ___________.

polysaccharide

129

What's the name of the covalent bond holding all the monosaccharides together?

glycosidic linkages

130

The ___________ gives you energy. Sugar!

monosaccharide

131

If you already have energy, you could instead use the monomer for construction, to build a _______.

polymer

132

If you got energy, you don't have to make ATP immediately, you can _____ ______.

store energy

133

How do you store energy?

By building a polymer

134

The _______ is the form for storing sugar.

polymer

135

Cellulose is a structural __________.

polysaccharide

136

A true monosaccharide is some multiple of _____.

CH2O

137

Is sucrose a monosaccharide?

No. C12H22O11 is not a multiple of CH2O

138

When different chemicals share the same molecular formula, meaning they have the same number of atoms, the name is an ______.

isomer

139

_____ are chemicals with the same atoms arranged differently.

Isomers

140

Which of carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids are macromolecules?

Everything but lipids

141

Which of carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids form polymers?

Everything but lipids

142

Which atoms in monosaccharides are found in CHON?

CHO

143

Name two functional groups found in monosaccharides...

carbonyl group and several hydroxyl groups

144

In an aqueous environment, monosaccharides form ____.

rings

145

Because (these) carbon atoms are joined by ______ _____ _____, you can rotate them.

single covalent bonds

146

When carbon forms single covalent bonds...it undergoes...

SP3 HYBRIDIZATION

147

What's the difference between alpha and beta glucose?

Alpha glucose is where the hydroxyl group is trapped below the ring, by looking at the position of carbon number one.
Beta glucose is where the hydroxyl group is trapped above the ring, by looking at the position of carbon number one.
Alpha glucose (Armadillos on the ground), Beta glucose (Birds in the sky)

148

How come when two glucoses (C6H12O6) form maltose the molecular formula isn't C12H22O12?

Dehydration removes a water. There are two products of this reaction, maltose (C12H22O11) and water (H20)

149

Sucrose =

glucose + fructose

150

Maltose =

glucose + glucose

151

Lactose =

glucose + galactose

152

What are the three disaccharides found in your diet?

Sucrose, maltose and lactose

153

What are the three monosaccharides found in your diet?

Glucose, galactose, fructose

154

Sucrose, maltose and lactose are all _______.

isomers. They all have the molecular formula C12H22O11.

155

What are the two functions of polysaccharides?

1) Storage
2) Structure

156

______ and _______ STORE sugar.
________, _____ and _________ FORM STRUCTURE.

Starch and glycogen store sugar
Cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycan form structure

157

Polysaccharide starch has a ______ polymer.

glucose

158

What do plants do with their excess glucose?

They've got enough glucose, so they have to store it somewhere...what do they do? They put it into chains. THEY BUILD STARCH.

159

Where is starch stored in plants?

In the chloroplast

160

What is the structure of the starch polysaccharide?

A helix

161

Why does starch branch?

If you have a branching structure...there's more ends to the enzyme can find the end more often to build/break.

162

Can humans break down starch?

Yes

163

What is the enzyme that breaks down starch?

Amylase

164

Enzymes typically end in the three letters -___.

-ase

165

Is there a difference between the structure of glycogen and starch?

No, ITS THE SAME THING.

166

Why are the structures of starch and glycogen the same?

Because they are both made from alpha glucose

167

Who uses glycogen to store sugar?

Animals

168

In mammals, glycogen is primarily stored in the _____ and the _______.

liver and the muscle

169

Cellulose is found in _____.

plants

170

What is the barrier that surrounds every single cell?

Cell membrane

171

Cellulose is a major component of the cell _____.

wall

172

What is wood and cotton made out of?

Cellulose

173

What is the most abundant organic compound?

Cellulose

174

Is cellulose alpha or beta glucose?

BETA GLUCOSE

175

Does cellulose branch?

NO.

176

The plant uses _____ glucose for making starch and storage.
The plant uses _____ glucose for my body (structure).

alpha
beta

177

Amylase is the enzyme that ______ starch.

hydrolyses

178

Does amylase hydrolyze cellulose?

No

179

Amylase digests ______, starch is made from _____ glucose...amylase cannot digest ______....cellulose is made from ____ glucose.

starch, alpha, cellulose, beta

180

Is chitin made of glucose?

NO. It's a DERIVATIVE of glucose. It's made from N-acetylglucosamine, "NAG"

181

Of _____...the structural material is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods.

chitin

182

The cell wall of fungi is made of _____.

chitin

183

The structural polysaccharide peptidoglycan is going to make up a ____ ____.

cell wall

184

Peptidoglycan makes up the cell wall of who?

Bacteria

185

What are the three organisms that have a cell wall?

Plants, fungi, bacteria

186

Do lipids form polymers?

NO

187

Lipids are a _____ chemical group

diverse

188

What's the only one quality all lipids share?

They're hydrophobic

189

We can build larger lipids through ________.

dehydration

190

Lipids store ______.

energy

191

Lipids also serve _______ roles.

structural

192

_____ _____ is the simplest of all lipids.

Fatty acid

193

What's the structure of lipids?

LONG chain of hydrocarbon

194

Why is the long chain of hydrocarbon zig-zagging?

SP3 HYBRIDIZATION. SINGLE COVALENT BONDS.

195

What is attached at the two ends of the fatty acid?

A carboxyl group and a methyl group

196

What do we call fatty acids with no double bonds?

Saturated

197

What do we call fatty acids with double bonds?

Unsaturated