Flashcards in Exam # 1 - Lecture Notes 1-6 Deck (197):
What are the eight characteristics of life?
4) Uses energy
6) Carries instructions
Does a bacteria cell qualify as life?
Is a virus alive?
No. The virus is not alive because it depends so fundamentally on the cell in order to accomplish the qualities of life
Nothing less than a ____ is alive.
What did Stanley Miller get when he did his experiment?
How many elements occur naturally?
How many elements are essential to life?
Which four elements make up 96% of living matter?
Which elements make up the remaining 4%?
Na, P, S, Ca, K, Mg, Cl
The remaining fourteen elements are each present less than ___%. These elements are called _____ elements.
If the human body lacks iodine you get ______.
Atoms combine into ________.
______ are used for individual atoms and molecules...really tiny matter that you can't even see.
The electron is important for two reasons, what are those two reasons?
1) Chemical bonding
2) Storing energy - POTENTIAL ENERGY
______ are atoms that vary in their number of neutrons.
If you are studying the chemistry of the cell, this is referred to as...
In biology, it's not electrons flowing through a copper wire...it's electrons in...
Why are different elements required for life? Does it matter where an element is on the periodic table? Does it tell us anything about its properties?
Yeah, HOW IT REACTS
The various atoms want to fill...
their outer shells
Behavior depends on the ______ electrons.
What are electrons called in the outer shell?
Which theory more accurately describes an electrons position in space?
How many orbitals are contained in the first shell?
What's the orbital called in the first shell and what's its shape?
s orbital, spherical
How many orbitals are found in the second shell?
How many electrons does one orbital hold?
The first shell can hold a maximum of ___ electrons. The second shell can hold ____ orbitals, and each one can hold a maximum of _____ electrons.
two, four, two
The _____ rule means you want to have _____ electrons.
octet rule, eight electrons
If you're hydrogen, you want to have ____ electrons to complete your shell, since only one electron fills its first shell.
When a hydrogen bonds with another hydrogen, it forms a covalent bond. H-H. That new hydrogen is no longer an atom, but a ________.
How many covalent bonds will oxygen form?
TWO COVALENT BONDS because it already has six electrons in its second shell.
Define a molecule...
Atoms held together by covalent bonds.
How many covalent bonds does phosphorus form?
FIVE covalent bonds. Three single covalent and two double covalent
Phosphorus in biology is typically bonded to _______.
Is water charged?
NO, WATER IS NOT CHARGED
There are _____ charges within water due to unequal sharing of electrons.
Is having partial charges within a molecule the same thing as being charged?
Where do you expect partial charges to be in the biological molecule?
In CHON, which are more electronegative and which are less electronegative?
More electronegative = O and N
Less electronegative = C and H
What happens when you get either O and N with either C or H?
You get partial charge
We are ______ based.
If your biological molecule has either _____ or _____ in it...you'll have partial charge.
Oxygen or nitrogen
What is a polar covalent bond?
A bond where the sharing of electrons are unequal
Oxygen contains two polar/non-polar covalent bonds?
two non-polar covalent bonds because they have equal electronegativity, and also because their electrons share equally
What is a non-polar covalent bond?
A bond where the electrons equally share
Hydrogen contains a polar/non-polar covalent bond?
non-polar covalent bond
Is methane polar or non-polar?
non-polar because no partial charge and the electrons share equally
Name the four weak interactions
ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, van der Waals interactions and hydrophobic interactions
Ionic bond, weak or strong in biology?
Compounds held together ionically are called _____.
Can a molecule be an ion?
Ammonium chloride...what is that?
The chloride is an anion and the ammonium is actually the cation...it has a positive charge...so they stick together...salt
Yes, it's a molecule...BUT IT'S ALSO AN ION BECAUSE WE GAINED AN ELECTRON!
Bio molecules usually bear partial and full charges which dictates their _______ and _______.
structures and functions
What's the charge of DNA?
Negative charge because of the ACID
The strength of an ionic bond depends on the _______.
In water, ionic bonds have _/__ the strength of covalent bonds.
The cell itself is __% water.
What is required in a hydrogen bond?
1) hydrogen - must have a partial charge
2) the hydrogen needs to be bonded to oxygen or nitrogen
Are hydrogens in water suited for hydrogen bonding?
Van der Waals interactions can occur between...
two non-polar chemical groups
Van der Waals interactions can occur between two non-polar chemical groups which means...
no partial charge
What are transient partial charges?
Temporary, brief, not permanent
Hydrophobic interactions can also occur between...
two non-polar chemical groups
What chemical groups don't like water?
non-polar chemical groups don't like water
Why don't non-polar chemical groups like water?
They're not charged...they don't have partial charge.
What are the two ways in which weak interactions are important?
Weak interactions work both intermolecularly and intramolecularly...
They work intErmolecularly to hold two molecules togEther.
They work intrAmolecularly to establish the molecule's 3D shApe.
What four reasons determine shape?
1) which atoms are bonded to each other
2) the orbitals
3) Intramolecular weak interactions
4) Environmental conditions - oil sticks together in water
When covalent bonds form, valance shell orbitals _______ and _______.
combine and rearrange
Which atoms among CHON does this type of hybridization pertain to?
Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen
Sp3 hybridizations happens when these three atoms form...
SINGLE COVALENT BONDS
When a carbon forms with hydrogen to form methane, you get...
SP3 HYBRIDIZATION. SINGLE COVALENT BONDS.
What is it that makes the chain fold?
__________ weak interactions help determine shape.
At chemical equilibrium, what is equal?
The rates forwards and the rates backwards
Does equilibrium happen in the cells?
NO. Equilibrium is a principle that is applicable to the test tube where we can isolate a reaction.
Reactions in the cell run in metabolic pathways, THERE IS NO EQUILIBRIUM IN THE CELL.
When did the Earth form?
4.54 billion years ago
When did life appear?
3-4 billion years ago
How long did life remain in water?
About 3 billion years
How many years ago did life move to land?
About 500 million years ago
How many hydrogen bonds can a single water form?
Water sticks to itself...this is called _______.
Water sticks to other substances that have partial or full charge...this is called ________.
Water also has high ______ _____.
high specific heat
Why does it take a lot of energy to increase temperature in water?
First you have to break the hydrogen bonds. So energy goes into breaking the hydrogen bonds, and then the water molecules start moving more quickly. It takes more heat.
What is a macromolecule?
A molecule that is over a 1000 daltons
Hydrophilic vs hydrophobic...
Hydrophilic = water loving. Something that is hydrophilic does not mean a substance is also soluble.
Hydrophobic = water fearing. Avoid water.
A mole weighs the number of _____ of an atom or molecule that is numerically equivalent as the number of ______ in its atomic weight.
1 atom of carbon would weigh...
A mole of carbon would weigh...
What does a mole of sucrose weigh? (C12H22O11)
12x12 + 22x1 + 11x16 = 342 daltons.
How many molecules does a mole of sucrose (342 daltons) weigh?
342 x 6.02x10^23
Ethanol weighs 46g...how many molecules does it contain?
How many daltons are equal to one gram?
How many atoms are in a mole of sucrose (C12H22O11)?
12 + 22 + 11 = 45 atoms.
45 x 6.02x10^23
A substance is a base if it ______ the proton concentration.
An acid is a substance that will ______ the proton concentration by dissociating.
Cellular pH is maintained by _______.
What did vitalism say?
Biological molecules are the result of a life force
Wöhler did an experiment that contradicted vitalism. He took the compound _________ _______ and he converted it into ____.
ammonium cyanate, urea
What is the structure of ethane?
Two tetrahedral pointing directly at each other
What do double bonds do to the shape of the molecule?
They create a planer. Flat.
What are compounds made up or carbon an hydrogen called?
Why are hydrocarbon's energy rich?
NON-POLAR COVALENT BONDS. Non-polar covalent bonds make for very energetic molecules.
When a hydroxyl is present in a chemical group, what does it make that chemical group?
If you have a hydroxyl, you are technically an ______.
What's important about carboxyl groups?
They have a tendency to ionize...
What will the charge of a single carboxyl group contribute to a molecule?
1- (negative). Also think, carboxylic acid (1-)
Why is pH important?
It dictates the behavior of ions
At cellular pH, if you have a carboxyl group, then you'll lose your...
proton and then you will have a unit of negative charge. Now you can stick to something positive.
What is the most important biomolecule?
What is the building block of a polymer called?
The molecular chain is called a _______.
Adding one monomer to another monomer, one at a time, is the way that we build all basic polymers. This is called a _______ reaction because we...
dehydration reaction because we removed water.
Dehydration reactions require/releases energy?
Require energy, just like it requires energy to build a house of cards
To build a polymer of four monomers, you need...
three dehydration reactions
We can disassemble polymers...we call this _______.
Now...adding a water molecule we are breaking with water...what is this called?
A hydrolysis reaction requires/releases energy?
Releases energy. Just as energy is released, the house of cards tumbles down
Building ______ energy, breaking ______ energy.
Which reaction consumes water? USES water?
Which reaction produces water?
Where else does hydrolysis happen?
Digestion, outside the cells
Carbohydrates are effectively _______.
The sugar is the _______.
If you put two monosaccharides together, you get what?
If you put anywhere from 3-50 monosaccharides together...you get an ___________.
More than 50 monosaccharides you are a ___________.
What's the name of the covalent bond holding all the monosaccharides together?
The ___________ gives you energy. Sugar!
If you already have energy, you could instead use the monomer for construction, to build a _______.
If you got energy, you don't have to make ATP immediately, you can _____ ______.
How do you store energy?
By building a polymer
The _______ is the form for storing sugar.
Cellulose is a structural __________.
A true monosaccharide is some multiple of _____.
Is sucrose a monosaccharide?
No. C12H22O11 is not a multiple of CH2O
When different chemicals share the same molecular formula, meaning they have the same number of atoms, the name is an ______.
_____ are chemicals with the same atoms arranged differently.
Which of carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids are macromolecules?
Everything but lipids
Which of carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids form polymers?
Everything but lipids
Which atoms in monosaccharides are found in CHON?
Name two functional groups found in monosaccharides...
carbonyl group and several hydroxyl groups
In an aqueous environment, monosaccharides form ____.
Because (these) carbon atoms are joined by ______ _____ _____, you can rotate them.
single covalent bonds
When carbon forms single covalent bonds...it undergoes...
What's the difference between alpha and beta glucose?
Alpha glucose is where the hydroxyl group is trapped below the ring, by looking at the position of carbon number one.
Beta glucose is where the hydroxyl group is trapped above the ring, by looking at the position of carbon number one.
Alpha glucose (Armadillos on the ground), Beta glucose (Birds in the sky)
How come when two glucoses (C6H12O6) form maltose the molecular formula isn't C12H22O12?
Dehydration removes a water. There are two products of this reaction, maltose (C12H22O11) and water (H20)
glucose + fructose
glucose + glucose
glucose + galactose
What are the three disaccharides found in your diet?
Sucrose, maltose and lactose
What are the three monosaccharides found in your diet?
Glucose, galactose, fructose
Sucrose, maltose and lactose are all _______.
isomers. They all have the molecular formula C12H22O11.
What are the two functions of polysaccharides?
______ and _______ STORE sugar.
________, _____ and _________ FORM STRUCTURE.
Starch and glycogen store sugar
Cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycan form structure
Polysaccharide starch has a ______ polymer.
What do plants do with their excess glucose?
They've got enough glucose, so they have to store it somewhere...what do they do? They put it into chains. THEY BUILD STARCH.
Where is starch stored in plants?
In the chloroplast
What is the structure of the starch polysaccharide?
Why does starch branch?
If you have a branching structure...there's more ends to the enzyme can find the end more often to build/break.
Can humans break down starch?
What is the enzyme that breaks down starch?
Enzymes typically end in the three letters -___.
Is there a difference between the structure of glycogen and starch?
No, ITS THE SAME THING.
Why are the structures of starch and glycogen the same?
Because they are both made from alpha glucose
Who uses glycogen to store sugar?
In mammals, glycogen is primarily stored in the _____ and the _______.
liver and the muscle
Cellulose is found in _____.
What is the barrier that surrounds every single cell?
Cellulose is a major component of the cell _____.
What is wood and cotton made out of?
What is the most abundant organic compound?
Is cellulose alpha or beta glucose?
Does cellulose branch?
The plant uses _____ glucose for making starch and storage.
The plant uses _____ glucose for my body (structure).
Amylase is the enzyme that ______ starch.
Does amylase hydrolyze cellulose?
Amylase digests ______, starch is made from _____ glucose...amylase cannot digest ______....cellulose is made from ____ glucose.
starch, alpha, cellulose, beta
Is chitin made of glucose?
NO. It's a DERIVATIVE of glucose. It's made from N-acetylglucosamine, "NAG"
Of _____...the structural material is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods.
The cell wall of fungi is made of _____.
The structural polysaccharide peptidoglycan is going to make up a ____ ____.
Peptidoglycan makes up the cell wall of who?
What are the three organisms that have a cell wall?
Plants, fungi, bacteria
Do lipids form polymers?
Lipids are a _____ chemical group
What's the only one quality all lipids share?
We can build larger lipids through ________.
Lipids store ______.
Lipids also serve _______ roles.
_____ _____ is the simplest of all lipids.
What's the structure of lipids?
LONG chain of hydrocarbon
Why is the long chain of hydrocarbon zig-zagging?
SP3 HYBRIDIZATION. SINGLE COVALENT BONDS.
What is attached at the two ends of the fatty acid?
A carboxyl group and a methyl group
What do we call fatty acids with no double bonds?