Flashcards in Exam #2 - Lecture Notes 10-12 Deck (233)
The SA to volume ratio becomes ______ as the cell gets bigger.
And when the SA to volume ratio is too small, you really lose the ability to ______ the cell's large volume.
Where is the central vacuole found?
What is the central vacuole going to do?
It's going to INCREASE the SA to volume ratio
True/false: Prokaryotes are single celled, whereas eukaryotes are multicellular.
FALSE, because there are single celled eukaryotes.
Prokaryotes are invariably...
Achea tend to live in...
extreme environments...like a deep sea vent...like a hot spring...near boiling temperatures. A microorganism will THRIVE.
Besides the nucleus, where else is there DNA in a eukaryotic cell? And name one.
It's within organelles in the cytoplasm.
So DNA found in organelles.
What are the three main differences that distinguish prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
1) Eukaryotes have a nucleus
2) Eukaryotes have membrane-bound sub cellular structure
3) The size of eukaryotes tend to be larger.
Prok: 1-10 micrometers
Euk: 10-100 micrometers
Do bacteria have DNA?
Yes, BACTERIA HAVE DNA! They have chromosomes!
Is the DNA in a bacteria enclosed in a membrane?
Where is the DNA in a bacteria located?
In a region of the cell wall called the "nucleoid"
What's the one feature you need to know about a bacterial cell?
They do not have membrane bound organelles
Which one has a cell wall?
Bacteria have a cell wall, but so do many eukaryotes, although not all, not ________.
Most DNA in eukaryotes is in the nucleus, so where is the rest of it?
The rest of it is found in organelles, such as the mitochondria
Common features of all cells...
ALL CELLS HAVE A ____ _________.
What is the composition of that cell membrane?
The cytoplasm is everything between the _______ ______ and the ____ ________.
between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane
Everybody has PROTEIN, so everybody needs _________.
Again, what does the large central vacuole, found in plato cells, help to do?
Helps to increase the SA to volume ratio
What is the mitochondria for?
ENERGY. Sites of ATP synthesis
Eukaryotes are __x larger than prokaryotes.
The ___ ______ maintains the internal chemistry of the cell.
cell membrane/plasma membrane
One function of the cell membrane is that it maintains the internal chemistry of the cell.
What are two other main functions?
1) Receptors - receive signals in multicellular organisms...could be a hormone. Even in single celled life, can receive a signal from the environment. Receptors are part of that membrane.
2) Transport - What good is a barrier against atoms…? Against atoms…if we cannot bring in nutrients, if we cannot bring in sugar, if we cannot bring in amino acids. It’s useless. We have to have transport capability within that barrier, and we do and we have other functions as well.
We just said the membrane is more than a barrier! It has receptor capability! It has transport capability! Just to transport what you want, and not poisons and toxins. How do you have that functionality if you don’t have the best of all molecules…______.
Again, what is the composition of the cell membrane? (3)
Phospholipids, other lipids, *diverse proteins*
Why do we, eukaryotes, require membrane bound organelles?
The ability to compartmentalize certain functions so they don't get mixed up
Can bacteria make ATP
Of course, energy source