EXAM #1: PATHOLOGY OF THYROID Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #1: PATHOLOGY OF THYROID Deck (48)
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1

What are the signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

1) Hypermetabolism
2) Enhanced epinephrine effect (tremulous and anxiety)
3) Lid lag
4) A-fib
5) Thyroid storm

2

What is "lid lag?"

A delay in the downward movement of the upper eyelid

3

A young female patient is sweaty with a-fib. What do you need to rule out?

Thyroid disease

4

What is thyroid storm?

- This is an acute, life-threatening, hypermetabolic state
- Induced by excessive release of thyroid hormones (THs) in individuals with thyrotoxicosis (Grave's Disease)

*Typically from surgery of childbirth*

5

What is Graves' Disease?

Autoimmune disease with production of IgG antibody vs. TSH receptor

6

What is the sex-predominance in Graves' Disease?

Female

7

What are the labs that are seen in Graves' Disease?

High T3/T4 with LOW TSH

8

What are the ophthalmologic consequences of Grave's Disease?

Proptosis/ Exopthalmous

9

What is myxedema?

Swelling of the skin and underlying tissues of the shin giving a waxy/doughy consistency

*This is due to TSH stimulation of fibroblasts with TSHR

10

What is myxedema most commonly associated with?

HYPOthyroid--however, sometimes it is seen in HYPER; be sure to associate with other symptoms

*Iodine deficiency leads to increased TSH release OR, TSH antibodies in graves

11

What is the gross appearance of the thyroid gland in Grave's Disease?

Diffuse, symmetrically beefy red gland

12

What is the histologic appearance of Grave's Disease?

- Pale colloid with resporption vacuoles i.e. "scalloping"
- Hyperplastic follicles with papillary infoldings

13

What are the signs and symptoms of Hypothyroid?

1) Slowing of mind and body
2) Myxedema (accumulation of hydrophilic ground substance in connective tissue)

14

What is the name of the disease that occurs when a child has hypothyroid?

Cretinism

15

What are the clinical features of cretinism?

1) Stunted growth
2) Retarded mental development
3) Delayed bone and tooth development (2-4 months is normal)

Also, facial swelling, puffy eyelids, protruding tongue, low hair line, and altered eyebrows.

16

When does thyroid hormone need to be replaced to reverse the course of cretinism?

Before the 3rd week

*Note that legally you are abound to screen for cretinism

17

What is Hashimoto Thyroiditis?

Chronic progressive thyroid disease

*Presents as hyperthyroid then progresses to hypothyroid

18

What causes Hashimoto Thyroiditis?

Autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland associated with HLA-DR5

19

What is the gross appearance of Hashimoto Thyroiditis?

- Diffusely enlarged
- Pale
- Intact

20

What is the histologically pathognomonic for Hashimoto Thyroiditis?

Hurtle Cells and chronic inflammation with germinal centers

21

What is a Hurtle Cell?

Metaplasia of the cells that line the thyroid follicle due to autoimmune attack

22

What is De Quervain Thyroiditis?

Transient granulomatous hyperthyroidism secondary to viral infection

23

What causes De Quervain Thyroiditis?

Viral infection esp. by coxsackie and adenovirus

24

What is the sex predominance of De Quervain Thyroiditis?

Female

25

What is the unique clinical aspect of De Quervain Thyroiditis?

PAIN/TENDERNESS

26

What is a Goiter?

Thyroid enlargement, usually due to relative iodine deficiency

27

What causes Goiter?

Impaired ability of thyroid to produce thyroid hormone

28

What happens to TSH with goiter?

Elevated

29

What causes Goiter?

Typically:
- Decreased iodide
- Compensatory increase in TSH leads to enlargement

30

What is a Colloid Goiter?

Beginning smooth goiter