EXAM #1: PATHOLOGY OF THE PARATHYROID Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #1: PATHOLOGY OF THE PARATHYROID Deck (31):
1

What is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism?

Parathyroid adenoma

2

How is the production of PTH described in a parathyroid adenoma?

Autonomous overproduction of PTH

3

What is the net effect of of overproduced PTH?

Hypercalcemia

4

How does overproduction of PTH cause hypercalcemia?

1) Increased bone resorption of Ca++
2) Increased renal tubular reabsorption of Ca++
3) Increased urinary EXCRETION of phosphate*
4) Increased synthesis of Vitamin D

PTH= Phosphate Trashing Hormone

5

What is the typical urine Ca++ finding in primary hyperparathyroidism?

Hypercalciuria

6

What is the sequelae of hypercalciuria in primary hyperparathyroidism?

Renal stones causing:
- Flank pain
- Hematuria

7

What are the major clinical manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism?

1) Stones
2) Bones= osteomalacia (softening of the bones) then pathologic fracture/ "brown tumor"
3) Groans= gastritis/ gallstones
4) Moans= psych

8

What is another name for a Brown Tumor?

Osteitis fibrosa cystica

9

Why does primary hyperparathyroid cause abdominal pain?

- Hypercalcemia stimulates gastrin release and acid secretion
- Results in PUD

10

Grossly, is a parathyroid adenoma singular or multinodular? How big are these tumors?

Singular and between 0.5-5 grams

*Note that this is opposite of hyperplasia, where all four glands are bigger

11

What patient population is a parathyroid adenoma most common in?

Older women

12

What is the name of the surgical procedure to remove a parathyroid adenoma?

MIRP, Minimally-Invasive Radioguided Parathyroidectomy

*Utilizes Tc99 sestamibi

13

Describe the histologic appearance of parathyroid adenoma.

- Dominance of chief cells with no fat/stromal cells
- Outlined by a thin rim of normal parathyroid

14

What is the second most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism?

Parathyroid hyperplasia

15

How does parathyroid hyperplasia differ from a parathyroid adenoma?

All four glands are big

16

What does MEN stand for? What are the MEN syndromes?

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

*This is parathyroid disease with tumors of other endocrine organs

17

Histologically, what is the difference between a parathyroid adenoma and hyperplasia?

- There is NO RIM OF NORMAL tissue in parathyroid hyperplasia
- Like adenoma, no fat cells as well

18

What is secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Parathyroid hyperplasia due to HYPOCALCEMIA from other causes

19

What is the most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)

20

Why does CRF cause hypocalcemia?

- Abnormal renal loss of Ca
- Decreased renal conversion to 1,25(OH) 2 D

21

What thyroid cancer is associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism?

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

22

What oncogene mutation is associated with Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid?

RET

23

What drug is indicated for patients with secondary parathyroidism due to renal pathology?

Calcitriol--the active metabolite of Vitamin D

24

What is the surgical procedure to treat parathyroid carcinoma?

En bloc resection

25

Histologically, what is the most common finding in parathyroid carcinoma?

Thick fibrous bands

26

Grossly, how does a parathyroid carcinoma appear?

Gray-white irregular mass

*Note that this is over 10 grams

27

List three common causes of hypoparathyroidism?

1) Iatrogenic during thyroidectomy
2) Autoimmune disorder
3) DiGeorge Syndrome

28

What are the symptoms of hypoparathyroidism?

1) Mental status changes
2) Paresthesias
3) Chovstek sign
4) Trousseau sign
5) Convulsions
6) Tetany

29

What are two clinical manifestations of tetany?

- Risus sardonicus
- Opisthotonus

30

What labs confirm the diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism?

- Decreased Ca++
- Increased Phosphate

31

What is the treatment for hypoparathyroidism?

1) Vitamin D
2) Calcium gluconate*
3) Recombinant human PTH

*Reduces the excitability of cardiac myocytes and is thus cardioprotective in hyperkalemia