EXAM #2: DIABETES AND NUTRITION Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EXAM #2: DIABETES AND NUTRITION Deck (20):
1

What is nutritional medicine?

- Understanding the nutrients are essential for proper functioning
- Nutritional plan should come before drug treatment

2

What are the goals of Medical Nutritional Therapy (MNT) in treating Diabetes?

1) Healthful eating pattern
2) Individualized glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid goals
3) Achieve/ maintain body weight goals
4) Delay/ prevent DM complications

3

What is one of the main dietary macro-nutrient to consider in MNT for DM?

Carbohydrates

4

What are the three levels of carb counting?

1) Basic
2) Intermediate
3) Advanced

5

What are the key concepts of basic carb counting?

- Awareness of which foods contain carbohydrates
- Portion sizes
- Avoidance of sweetners
- Maintaining carbohydrate consistency

6

What are the key concepts of intermediate carb counting?

- Understanding how glucose levels are affected by medications and physical activity
- Focus on carb control to reduce weight

7

What is advanced carb counting?

DM-I needing to calculate carbohydrate:insulin levels ratios

8

What are the initial carbohydrate goals?

45-60 grams per meal
15-20 grams per snack

9

What does the glycemic index (GI) measure?

Quality of carbohydrate on scale of 0-100

10

What are the "low" GI foods?

55 or lower

*Note that these are absorbed slowly

11

How does ripening alter the GI of a food?

Increased

12

How does eating a carbohydrate with other macronutrients alter the GI?

Decreased

13

What is Glycemic Load (GL)?

Measurement that takes into account the quality (GI) and quantity of carbohydrates

14

How is the GL calculated?

GI/100g serving

15

What is the definition of a low GL food?

Foods less than 10

16

What are the recommendations for DM patients WITHOUT renal impairment, regarding protein intake?

Same as gen. pop. i.e. 18-20% of diet

17

What are the recommendations for DM patients WITH renal impairment, regarding protein intake?

Avoid high protein diet

18

What are the recommendations for DM patients in regards to fats?

Same as gen. pop. i.e. 20-25% of diet

19

What types of fat have shown to be beneficial for DM patients?

- Monounsaturated
- Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid

20

What were the conclusions of the DPP study?

1) Diet/exercise can prevent progression to DM-II
2) Seen in all minority, age, and gender groups
3) Incidence decreased by 58% with diet/exercise--more than metformin alone (31%)